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Polymer Adhesion, Friction, and Lubrication

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Specifically dedicated to polymer and biopolymer systems, Polymer Adhesion, Friction, and Lubrication guides readers to the scratch, wear, and lubrication properties of polymers and the engineering applications, from biomedical research to automotive engineering.

Taal / Language : English

Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Surface Adhesion, Friction and Lubrication 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Basic Concepts 1.2.1 Intermolecular and Surface forces 1.2.2 Surface Energy 1.3 Adhesion and Contact Mechanics 1.3.1 Hertz Model 1.3.2 Johnson-Kendal-Roberts (JKR) Model 1.3.3 Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) Model 1.3.4 Maugis Model 1.3.5 Indentation 1.3.6 Effect of Environmental Conditions on Adhesion 1.3.7 Adhesion of Rough Surfaces 1.3.8 Adhesion Hysteresis 1.4 Friction 1.4.1 Amontons’ Laws of Friction 1.4.2 The Basic Models of Friction 1.4.3 Stick-Slip Friction 1.4.4 Directionality of Friction 1.5 Rolling Friction 1.6 Lubrication 1.7 Wear 1.8 Real Contact Area 1.9 Modern Tools in Tribology 1.9.1 X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 1.9.2 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 1.9.3 Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) 1.9.4 Optical Tweezers or Optical Trapping 1.9.5 Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) 1.9.6 Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) 1.10 Computer Simulation in Tribology Acknowledgement References Chapter 2. Adhesion and Tribological Characteristics of Ion-Containing Polymer Brushes Prepared by Controlled Radical Polymerization 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Controlled Synthesis of Ion-containing Polymer Brushes 2.3 Wettability of Polyelectrolyte Brushes 2.4 Adhesion and Detachment between Polyelectrolyte Brushes 2.5 Water Lubrication and Frictional Properties of Polyelectrolyte Brushes 2.6 Conclusions References Chapter 3 Lubrication and wear protection of natural (bio) systems 3.1. Introduction 3.1.1. What makes biolubrication unique? 3.1.2. Theory of friction 3.2. Boundary lubrication 3.2.1. Dry/contact lubrication 3.2.2. Thin film boundary lubrication 3.2.3. Hydration layers 3.2.4. Intermediate boundary lubrication 3.2.5. Thick film boundary lubrication 3.3. Fluid film lubrication 3.3.1 Elastohydrodynamic lubrication in biological systems 3.3.2 Weeping Lubrication 3.4. Multimodal Lubrication 3.4.1 Mixed Lubrication and the ‘Stribeck Curve’ 3.4.2 Adaptive Lubrication 3.4.3 Mechanically Controlled Adaptive Lubrication 3.5. Wear 3.5.1. How are friction and wear related? 3.5.2. Characterization, measurement, and evaluation of wear 3.5.3 Biological strategies for controlling wear 3.5.4 Wear of soft, compliant biological materials: 3.5.5 Controlling wear in hard biological materials: Self-sharpening mechanism in rodent teeth 3.6. Biomimetic and engineering approaches of biolubrication 3.6.1 Hydrogels coatings as artificial cartilage materials 3.6.2 Mimicking synovial fluid lubricating properties: polyelectrolytes lubrication 3.6.3 Superlubrication by aggrecan mimics: end grafted polymers and the brushes paradigm 3.6.4 Perspectives and future research avenues References Chapter 4 Polymer brushes and surface forces 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Some generic properties of polymer brushes 4.3 Sliding of high-Tg polymer brushes: the semi-dilute to vitrified transition 4.4 Sliding mechanism and relaxation of sheared brushes 4.5 Compression, shear and relaxation of melt brushes 4.6 Shear swelling of polymer brushes 4.7 Telechelic brushes 4.8 Brushes in aqueous media 4.9 Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes 4.10 Summary 4.11 Appendix: Self-regulation and velocity-dependence of brush-brush friction References Chapter 5. Adhesion, wetting and superhydrophobicity of polymeric surfaces 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Adhesion between polymeric surfaces 5.2.1. Van der Waals forces 5.2.2. Capillary Forces 5.2.3. Electrostatic Double-Layer Force 5.2.4. Solvation Forces 5.2.5. Mechanical contact force 5.3. Wetting of polymeric surfaces 5.3.1. Definition of contact angle: Young’s equation 5.3.2. Rough surfaces: Wenzel’s model 5.3.3. Heterogeneous surfaces: Cassie-Baxter model 5.4. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic materials 5.4.1. Replication of natural surface Direct replication of natural surface Replication by using an intermediate Nickel template 5.4.2. Molding or Template-assisted techniques Molding by using Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) templates Molding by using silicon templates Other molding methods 5.4.3. Roughening through introduction of nanoparticles Silica nanoparticles Polymer particles Carbon nanotubes 5.4.4. Electrospinning 5.4.5. Surface modification by low surface energy materials 5.4.6. Solution Method 5.4.7. Plasma, electron and laser Treatment 5.5. Surface characterization 5.5.1. Surface chemistry 5.5.2. Wetting property Experimental study 5.5.3. Microscopy Techniques Scanning Electron Microscopy Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 5.6. Conclusions References Chapter 6. Marine Bioadhesion on Polymer Surfaces and Strategies for its Prevention 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Protein Adsorption on Solid Surfaces 6.2.1 Protein-Repellant Surfaces Design Rules and Exceptions Polymer Brushes Nonionic Polymer Brushes with Hydrophilic Groups Bio-inspired Anchors for Surface-Initiated Polymerization Zwitterionic Surfaces Dendritic Coatings Hydrogel Coatings Hydrophobic and Superhydrophobic Surfaces Nanopatterned Surfaces 6.3 Polymer Coatings Resistant to Marine Biofouling 6.3.1 Hydrophobic Marine Fouling-Release Coatings: The Role of Surface Energy and Modulus Siloxane Polymers Fluorinated Polymers Fluorinated Polyurethanes Liquid Crystalline Block copolymers with Semifluorinated Alkyl Side Groups and Hydrophobic Surfaces Perfluoropolyether-Based Elastomers Fluorinated Siloxane Block Copolymers 6.3.2 Hydrophilic Coatings Polymers Polysaccharides 6.3.3 Amphiphilic Coatings 6.3.4 Self-polishing Coatings 6.3.5 Coatings with Topographically Patterned Surfaces 6.3.6 Anti-fouling Surfaces with Surface-Immobilized Enzymes and Bioactive Fouling-Deterrent Molecules 6.4 Conclusion Acknowledgements References Chapter 7. Molecular Engineering of Peptides for Cellular Adhesion Control 7.1. Introduction: Cells, Biomacromolecules, and Lipidated Peptides 7.2. Biomaterials 7.3. Chemistry Tools 7.3.1. Bioconjugate Chemistry 7.3.2. Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS) 7.4. Self-Assembly of Lipidated Peptides: Peptide Amphiphiles Engineering 7.4.1. Double Tailed Peptide Amphiphile 7.4.2. Single Tailed (Mono-Alkylated) Peptide Amphiphile 7.5. Biomimetic Peptide Amphiphile Surface Engineering Case Studies 7.5.1. Melanoma Cell Adhesion on a Lipid Bilayer Incorporating RGD 7.5.2. Adhesion of α5β1 Receptors to Biomimetic Substrates 7.5.3. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Adhesion 7.5.4. Cell Adhesion on a Polymerized Monolayer 7.5.5. Cell Adhesion and Growth on Patterned Lipid Bilayers 7.5.6. Single-Tail Fibrous Systems Bioactivation of Titanium Surface Mixed Peptide Amphiphile System PHSRN and RGD Incorporating Peptide Amphiphile 7.6. Neural Stem Cells on Surfaces: A Deeper Look at Cell Adhesion Control 7.6.1. The Stem Cell Microenvironment 7.6.2. Neural Stem Cells on Lipid Bilayers 7.6.3. Vesicle Fusion and Bilayer Characterization 7.6.4. Initial NSC Adhesion on Peptide Surfaces 7.6.5. Proliferation on Peptide Surfaces 7.6.6. NSC Differentiation on Peptide Surfaces 7.7. Overview of Molecular Engineering Designs for Cellular Adhesion 7.7.1. Self-Assembled Peptide Surfaces 7.7.2. Cell Adhesion Molecule RGD Surface Density Control: An Example 7.7.3. Cell Adhesion Molecule Accessibility (Exposure) Control 7.8. Ending Remarks 7.9. Acknowledgments References Chapter 8. A microcosm of wet adhesion – Dissecting protein interactions in mussel attachment plaques 8.1. Introduction 8.2. Mussel adhesion 8.2.1. Marine surfaces 8.2.2. Byssal attachment 8.2.3. Direct observation of plaque attachment 8.3 Surface forces apparatus. 8.3.1 Making the SFA relevant to biological environments. 8.4. Assessing protein contributions by SFA  8.4.1. Asymmetric/Symmetric configurations. 8.4.2. Protein-surface interactions. 8.4.3. Protein-protein interactions 8.5. Conclusions. References Chapter 9 Gecko-Inspired Polymer Adhesives 9.1 Introduction 9.1.1 A note on terminology 9.2 Biological Inspirations 9.2.1 Key discoveries in gecko adhesion 9.2.2 Structured adhesion in other animals 9.2.3 Summary of observed principles of micro-structured adhesives 9.3 Mechanical Principles of Structured Adhesive Surfaces 9.3.1 Adhesion Contact splitting The importance of the terminal tip geometry Matting condition as a limiting principle Flaw insensitivity The effect of surface roughness Additional principles 9.3.2 Friction Classic friction theory for smooth flat surfaces Theory and experimental results of structured interfaces in shear 9.4 Gecko-Inspired Adhesives and their Fabrication 9.4.1  Macro- and Microscale Fibers Modifications leading to Adhesion Control Angled Fibers Tip Modifications 9.4.2 Nanoscale Fibers 9.4.3 Hierarchical Fibers 9.5 Applications of Bio-inspired Adhesives 9.5.1 Robotics Mobile Robots Manipulators 9.5.2 Safety and Medical Devices 9.6 Future Directions: Unsolved Challenges and Possible Applications References Chapter 10 Adhesion and Friction Mechanisms of Polymer Surfaces and Thin Films 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Adhesion and contact mechanics 10.2.1 Surface energies 10.2.2 Advances in contact and adhesion mechanics 10.3 Adhesion of glassy polymers and elastomers 10.3.1 Adhesion interface: chain pull-out 10.3.2 Glassy polymers: transition from chain pull-out, chain scission to crazing 10.3.3 Adhesion promoters for polymer systems 10.4 Experimental advances in adhesion and friction between polymer surfaces and thin films 10.5 Adhesion and fracture mechanism of polymer thin films: from liquid to solid-like behaviors 10.6 Adhesion and friction between rough polymer surfaces 10.7 Friction between immiscible polymer melts 10. 8 Hydrophobic interactions between polymer surfaces 10.9  Perspectives and future research avenues Acknowledgement References Chapter 11. Recent advances in rubber friction with context in tire traction 11.1. Introduction 11.2. Background on rubber friction and tire traction 11.2.1 Characterization of surface roughness and contact mechanics 11.3. Recent innovations on tire tread compounds 11.4. Rubber friction under stationary sliding on rough surfaces 11.4.1 Theory of rubber friction on rough surfaces by Klüppel and Heinrich 11.4.2 Persson’s model on rubber friction 11.4.3 The model by Heinrich and Klüppel vs. the model by Persson: some comparisons 11.5. Rubber friction under non-stationary conditions 11.6. Interfacial effects on rubber friction 11.6.1 rubber surface treatment 11.6.2 Molecular scale probing of contact/sliding interface 11.7. Rubber friction involving textured surfaces 11.8. Field measurements within a frictional contact 11.9. Other studies on or related to rubber friction 11.10. Concluding remarks References Chapter 12 Polymers, Adhesion and Paper Materials 12.1. Introduction 12.2. Polymer nature of paper   12.2.1. Paper as a network of fibers 12.2.2 Wood fibers and its natural polymeric constituents 12.2.3 Cellulose fibers 12.3 Functional polymers and sizing agents used in papermaking 12.3.1 Major functions of polymer additives 12.3.2 Common functional polymers Starch Chitin and chitosan Polyacrylamide (PAM) Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) Polyethyleneoxide (PEO) Polyethylenimine (PEI) Polyaminopolyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) resins Polyvinylamine (PVAm) Polydiallyldimethylammoniumchloride (PDADMAC) 12.3.3. Sizing agents Rosin Sizing Agents Alkyl Ketene Dimers (AKDs) 12.3.3. 3. Alkenyl succinide anhydrides (ASAs) 12.3.3. 4. Flurosizing 12.4. Polymer adhesion and the formation of paper 12.4.1 Intermolecular forces or molecular adhesion processes van der Waals attraction Electrical Double Layer force DVLO Theory Steric Repulsion Hydration Force 12.4.2. Capillary forces 12.4.3 Work of adhesion and JKR contact mechanics 12.4.4 The formation of interfiber bonds 12.4.5 Linkage between molecular adhesion to paper strength Role of thermodynamic compatibility Contact mechanics aspects of interfiber bonds 12.5.  Polymer adhesion measurement 12.5.1 Shear adhesion testing 12.5.2 Peeling adhesion testing 12.5.3 JKR-type contact adhesion testing 12.5.4 AFM colloidal probe testing 12.6.  Summary and perspectives References Chapter 13. Carbohydrates and their Roles in Biological Recognition Processes 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Recent Advances in the Field of Carbohydrate Chemistry 13.2.1    Glycopolymers 13.2.2    Carbohydrate Microarrays 13.2.3    Carbohydrate-based Vaccines 13.3 Molecular Interactions of Carbohydrates in Cell Recognition 13.4 Techniques Used in the Identification of Carbohydrate Interactions in Cell Recognition 13.4.1    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 13.4.2    Cantilever Microarray Biosensors 13.5        Conclusions and Future Trends References Chapter 14. The impact of bacterial surface polymers on bacterial adhesion          14.1. Bacterial adhesion 14.1.1 Significance of bacterial adhesion 14.1.2 Mechanisms of bacterial adhesion 14.2 The impact of bacterial surface polymers on bacterial adhesion 14.2.1 Bacterial surface polymers  14.2.2 Impact of bacterial surface polymers on adhesion Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Pili, fimbriae, and flagella 14.3 Methods and models for understanding interaction mechanisms of bacterial adhesion 14.3.1 Techniques for studying bacterial surface polymers Electron microscopy Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) Optical tweezers (OT) Surface forces apparatus (SFA) 14.3.2 Models to explain bacterial adhesion mechanisms Thermodynamic model Classical DLVO model Extended DLVO theory Steric (polymer-mediated) interactions Steric repulsion Polymer bridging (polymer-mediated and tethering forces) References Chapter 15 Adhesion, Friction and Lubrication of Polymeric Nanoparticles and Their Applications 15.1. Applications of Polymeric Nanoparticles 15.1.1 Biomedical Applications of PNP 15.1.2 Energy Storage 15.1.3    Skin Care 15.1.4    Sensors 15.1.5 Electronic Devices 15.2 Methods of Preparation of Polymeric Nanoparticles (PNP) 15.2.1 Dispersion of Preformed Polymers Solvent Evaporation Salting-Out Nanoprecipitation Dialysis Supercritical Fluid Technology Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution (RESS) Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution into Liquid Solvent (RESOLV) 15.2.2 Polymerization of Monomers Conventional Emulsion Polymerization Surfactant-Free Emulsion Polymerization Miniemulsion Polymerization Microemulsion Polymerization 15.3. Adhesion of Polymeric NP 15.3.1 Hertz Theory  15.3.2 JKR Theory 15.3.3 DMT Theory  15.3.4 Examples on Adhesion of Polymeric NP 15.4. Adsorption of Polymeric Nanoparticles 15.4.1 Adsorption onto Polymeric Nanoparticles 15.4.2 Adsorption of Polymeric Nanoparticles on Large Surfaces 15.4.3 Adsorption Isotherms 15.4.4 Adsorption Kinetics of Polymeric Nanoparticles onto Substrates 15.5  Friction of Polymeric NP 15.6. Summary References Chapter 16. Electro/magneto-rheological materials and mechanical properties 16.1. ER/MR history 16.2. ER/MR phenomenon 16.3. ER/MR materials 16.4. ER/MR effect models 16.5. Properties of ER/MR fluids under shearing, tension, and squeezing 16.5.1    Shear properties of ER/MR fluids 16.5.2    Tensile behaviour of ER/MR fluids 16.5.3 Compression of ER/MR fluids 16.6. Transient response to field strength, shear rate, and geometry 16.7. Shear thickening in ER/MR fluids at low shear rates 16.8. Applications References
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722 pagina's
Januari 2013
1143 gram
241 x 165 x 44 mm
Wiley-Blackwell us

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