Introduction to FACTS Controllers
Theory, Modeling, and Applications
Written from a practicing engineer s point of view by one of the pioneers who developed the technology, FACTS Controllers provides a solid foundation to the basics of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission Systems (FACTS).
1. Applications of FACTS Controllers.
2. Power Flow Control Concepts.
2.2 Implementation of Power Flow Control Concepts.
2.3 Interline Power Flow Concept.
3. Modeling Principles.
3.1 The Modeling in EMTP.
3.2 Vector Phase Locked Loop (VPLL).
3.3 Transmission Line Steady State Resistance Calculator.
3.4 Simulation of an Independent PFC in a Single Line Application.
4. Transformer Based FACTS Controllers.
4.1 Voltage Regulating Transformer (VRT).
4.2 Phase Angle Regulator (PAR).
5. Mechanically Switched FACTS controllers.
5.1 Shunt Compensation.
5.2 Series Compensation.
Chapter 6: Voltage Sourced Converter (VSC).
6.1 Modeling an Ideal VSC.
6.2 DC to AC VSC.
7. Two Level Pole Design.
7.1 A Three Phase, Six Pulse VSC with Two Level Poles.
7.2 Analysis of a Pole.
8. VSC Based FACTS Controllers.
8.1 Shunt Compensation.
8.2 Series Compensation.
8.3 Shunt Series Compensation Using a Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC).
9. Sen Transformer.
9.1 Existing Solutions.
9.2 Desired Solution.
9.3 Comparison Among the VRT, PAR, UPFC, and ST.
9.4 Multiline Sen Transformer.
9.5 Flexible Operation of the ST.
9.6 ST with Shunt Connected Compensating Voltages.
9.7 Limited Angle Operation of the ST with Shunt Connected Compensating Voltages.
9.8 MST with Shunt Connected Compensating Voltages.
9.9 Generalized Sen Transformer.
Appendix A. Miscellaneous.
Appendix B. Power Flow Control Equation in a Lossy Transmission Line.
Appendix C. EMTP Files.
About he Authors.