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Purkis, Sam

Remote Sensing and Global Environmental Change

€ 76.95

This book provides the reader a broad grounding in the science of Earth Observation (EO) of our changing planet. It contains a comprehensive sequenced discussion covering the significant themes of global change, their cause, and how they can be monitored through time.

Taal / Language : English

Chapter 1: Introduction to environmental remote sensing.

An introductory chapter will present the fundamentals of the electromagnetic spectrum and its relevance to remote sensing. Energy interactions with the atmosphere and Earth s surface will be discussed. The concept of raster verses point data will be presented against the background of the pixel and its limitations. I will briefly tackle spatial, temporal and spectral resolution, the impact of orbital characteristics and the difference between active and passive sensing systems. Finally, the organisation of the book will be presented.
Chapter 2: A history of the use of Remote Sensing to Monitor Global Change.

The philosophy behind remote sensing can perhaps be divided up into three sections, first, what the technology is; second, why the technology has been developed, and how it has developed; and third, what the technology is used for, and why it is of benefit. From its inception, remote sensing has been a tool of the military. Long after the drive of the Cuban missile crisis and the Apollo program in the early sixties, NASA launched the first satellite with non military goals in 1972. The program, initially named the Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS 1), later morphed into the ongoing Landsat mission. With the launch of ERTS 1 came the possibility of routine Earth observation and a viable means to assess the health of our ecosystem. The detail and beauty that such imagery revealed has changed both our knowledge and our view of the planet.
Chapter 3: The Cryosphere, Ice shelf degradation and ICEsat Lidar.

The Earth s polar ice sheets are in retreat and the rate of degradation is difficult to quantify as total areal coverage is decreasing in tandem with a reduction in ice sheet thickness. The seasonal and long term dynamics of this loss are complex, non linear and difficult to quantify through field observation. ICESat is a spaceborne lidar mission to remotely sense the height of the ice sheets and is unique in providing the multi year elevation data needed to determine ice sheet mass balance. By quantifying ice sheet status, ICESat will provide answers to questions concerning many related aspects of the Earth s climate system, including global climate change and rising sea level. From a technological standpoint ICESat is an interesting sensor as it is one of the few satellite based Lidar instruments. Laser ranging technology is more commonly associated with air borne instruments for among other reasons, the high power requirements of the laser unit.
Chapter 4: Vegetation indices and deforestation.

The normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) is commonly used as a measure of land surface greenness based on the assumption that NDVI value is positively proportional to the amount of green vegetation in an image pixel area. The index is easily calculated and is applicable to a range of passive visible sensors. Abrupt changes in NDVI accompany deforestation and land use change. More subtle applications of the index allow for an estimate of the diversity of tree cover, which in turn can be used to identify hotspots likely to harbour high species richness of other organisms. Vegetation indices provide a link between land use/land cover changes and watershed patterns. The application is pertinent considering the present rapid degradation of the rainforests.
Chapter 5: Mapping Earth s atmospheres.

The MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flown on NASA Terra and Aqua platforms has revolutionised our ability to monitor the status of our atmosphere. Since it is of critical importance to the climate, scientists are focusing a great deal of attention on the role of clouds in reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby reducing surface heating. It is apparent that cloud albedo can be both increased and decreased by human activity. Albedo shows a marked increase along ship tracks, while smoke particles may serve to decrease cloud reflectivity. The feedbacks are complex and the mechanism elusive. Modern sensors such as MODIS are allowing us to start to unravel these intricacies, and to weight their importance for the stability of our climate.
Chapter 6: The status of the worlds coral reefs.

Being part of my own area of research, mapping and monitoring coral reefs using remote sensing is a field with which I am very familiar. The health of the world s reefs is deteriorating and the rapid decline is perceived to be representative of the future trajectory of many of Earth s ecosystems. From a remote sensing perspective, reefs are a challenging target as the seabed needs to be clearly resolved through a disruptive overlying water column. To understand this influence, it is necessary to introduce the interaction of light with water and to touch onto the technique of radiative transfer modelling. The chapter will cover the use of ultra high resolution passive visible sensors such as Ikonos and Quickbird to map coral habitats and will explain how ecological dynamics can be inferred through analysis of imagery.
Chapter 7: Monitoring urban growth using remote sensing.

Cities and urbanized areas are the social centres of our modern life and they provide all of our daily needs. They promise security, welfare and a place where people may find better life conditions compared to rural areas. As a consequence urbanized areas have become the densest populated regions on Earth. Their size has been constantly increased during the past and this process will go on in the future. Time series satellite remote sensing is a reliable source of data with which to understand urban growth. The case study is interesting as it processes both a spatial and temporal component. The concepts of hybrid, textural and object based classifiers will be covered, with reference to long running sensor continuity programs such as Landsat. I will introduce textural methods utilising moving windows to quantify pixel variance and the general applicability of spatial metrics to distinguishing between land cover types.
Chapter 8: An eye on rising sea level.

Satellite altimetry provides a tool for monitoring global sea level from orbit. The measurement of sea surface height from space programme was initiated in the 1970 s with the launching SEASAT altimeter satellites followed by GEOSAT in 1985 and ERS 1 in 1991. However, the accuracy of these sensors was limited and sea level measurement did not meet the requirements for regional or global sea level topography mapping. In the early 1990 s, microwaves with SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) came into use on satellites of ERS 1 and 2. The TOPEX Poseidon launched in 1992 ushered in an entirely new era of satellite altimetry, giving sea level measurement accurate to 3 4 cm. The data have demonstrated that very precise measurement of mean sea level can be made using satellite altimeters. To understand the technological basis of radar altimetry, I will case study the TOPEX Poseidon instrument. Investigate its mode of operation and typical errors, leading to a realistic estimate of the sensors ability to detect short term (e.g. El Niño La Niña), and long term (anthropogenic induced) sea level change.
Chapter 9: Lidar, levees and predicting the march of the sea.

Coastal changes such as beach, dune and sea cliff erosion, that occur during hurricanes and severe winter storms pose significant hazards to buildings and infrastructure that are built too close to vulnerable shorelines. Societal costs, in dollars spent and lives lost, can be staggering. With its rapidity of acquisition and very high data density, airborne Lidar (light detecting and ranging) is revolutionizing the quantification of storm induced coastal change. The mechanism of Lidar operation is easy to understand, but the challenge lies in the timing for a signal operating at the speed of light (nanosecond accuracy) combined with ultra accurate GPS positioning. With reference to the recovery effort following Hurricane Katrina on the US Gulf coast, I will highlight comparisons of before and after storm Lidar surveys to quantify patterns in erosion and accretion. I also aim to consider bathymetric lidar applications as more recent systems combine bathymetric and topographic capability.
Chapter 10: Space based evidence for Global Warming.

It is indisputable that global mean annual temperatures are rising. Debate however continues over whether this is a natural trend (e.g. inevitable interglacial warming) and how much is due to man s activities? Calculations show that the burning of fossil fuels (mainly coal, petroleum derivatives, and natural gas) add about 6 billion metric tons of carbon (as the element) to the air annually; each year also, deforestation permits an extra 1 2 billion metric tons of carbon to reach the atmosphere. Designed for long term monitoring of subtle changes in temperature and other variables, NASA s AQUA satellite carries the Japanese AMSR E instrument. This is an example of a new generation of sensors capable of measuring a suite of variables pertinent to environmental change. Operating in the microwave portion of the EM spectrum, the instrument delivers unparalleled estimates of rainfall, sea surface temperature, water vapour levels, wind speed and sea ice character over the oceans and soil wetness over land. Since AMSR E can penetrate clouds and offer uninterrupted surveillance, even at night, the instrument is allowing the compilation of datasets sufficiently sensitive to decouple the interrelated influence of natural and anthropogenic driven climate change.
Extra informatie: 
Paperback / softback
384 pagina's
Januari 2011
940 gram
247 x 193 x 21 mm
Wiley-Blackwell gb

Levertijd: 5 tot 11 werkdagen