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David M. Pozar

Microwave Engineering

€ 362.95

  • Pozar`s new edition of Microwave Engineering includes more material on active circuits, noise, nonlinear effects, and wireless systems.
  • Chapters on noise and nonlinear distortion, and active devices have been added along with the coverage of noise and more material on intermodulation distortion and related nonlinear effects.


    Taal / Language : English

    Inhoudsopgave:
    1 ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY 1

    1.1 Introduction to Microwave Engineering 1

    Applications of Microwave Engineering 2

    A Short History of Microwave Engineering 4

    1.2 Maxwell`s Equations 6

    1.3 Fields in Media and Boundary Conditions 10

    Fields at a General Material Interface 12

    Fields at a Dielectric Interface 14

    Fields at the Interface with a Perfect Conductor (Electric Wall) 14

    The MagneticWall Boundary Condition 15

    The Radiation Condition 15

    1.4 The Wave Equation and Basic Plane Wave Solutions 15

    The Helmholtz Equation 15

    Plane Waves in a Lossless Medium 16

    Plane Waves in a General Lossy Medium 17

    Plane Waves in a Good Conductor 19

    1.5 General Plane Wave Solutions 20

    Circularly Polarized Plane Waves 24

    1.6 Energy and Power 25

    Power Absorbed by a Good Conductor 27

    1.7 Plane Wave Reflection from a Media Interface 28

    General Medium 28

    Lossless Medium 30

    Good Conductor 31

    Perfect Conductor 32

    The Surface Impedance Concept 33

    1.8 Oblique Incidence at a Dielectric Interface 35

    Parallel Polarization 36 Perpendicular Polarization 37

    Total Reflection and Surface Waves 38

    1.9 Some Useful Theorems 40

    The Reciprocity Theorem 40

    Image Theory 42

    2 TRANSMISSION LINE THEORY 48

    2.1 The Lumped-Element Circuit Model for a Transmission Line 48

    Wave Propagation on a Transmission Line 50

    The Lossless Line 51

    2.2 Field Analysis of Transmission Lines 51

    Transmission Line Parameters 51

    The Telegrapher Equations Derived from Field Analysis of a Coaxial Line 54

    Propagation Constant, Impedance, and Power Flow for the Lossless

    Coaxial Line 56

    2.3 The Terminated Lossless Transmission Line 56

    Special Cases of Lossless Terminated Lines 59

    2.4 The Smith Chart 63

    The Combined Impedance-Admittance Smith Chart 67

    The Slotted Line 68

    2.5 The Quarter-Wave Transformer 72

    The Impedance Viewpoint 72

    The Multiple-Reflection Viewpoint 74

    2.6 Generator and Load Mismatches 76

    Load Matched to Line 77

    Generator Matched to Loaded Line 77

    Conjugate Matching 77

    2.7 Lossy Transmission Lines 78

    The Low-Loss Line 79

    The Distortionless Line 80

    The Terminated Lossy Line 81

    The Perturbation Method for Calculating Attenuation 82

    The Wheeler Incremental Inductance Rule 83

    2.8 Transients on Transmission Lines 85

    Reflection of Pulses from a Terminated Transmission Line 86

    Bounce Diagrams for Transient Propagation 87

    3 TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES 95

    3.1 General Solutions for TEM, TE, and TM Waves 96

    TEM Waves 98 TE Waves 100

    TM Waves 100

    Attenuation Due to Dielectric Loss 101

    3.2 Parallel Plate Waveguide 102

    TEM Modes 103

    TM Modes 104

    TE Modes 107

    3.3 Rectangular Waveguide 110

    TE Modes 110 TM Modes 115

    TEm0 Modes of a Partially Loaded Waveguide 119

    3.4 Circular Waveguide 121

    TE Modes 122

    TM Modes 125

    3.5 Coaxial Line 130

    TEM Modes 130

    Higher Order Modes 131

    3.6 Surface Waves on a Grounded Dielectric Sheet 135

    TM Modes 135 TE Modes 137

    3.7 Stripline 141

    Formulas for Propagation Constant, Characteristic Impedance,

    and Attenuation 141

    An Approximate Electrostatic Solution 144

    3.8 Microstrip Line 147

    Formulas for Effective Dielectric Constant, Characteristic Impedance,

    and Attenuation 148

    Frequency-Dependent Effects and Higher Order Modes 150

    3.9 The Transverse Resonance Technique 153

    TE0n Modes of a Partially Loaded Rectangular Waveguide 153

    3.10 Wave Velocities and Dispersion 154

    Group Velocity 155

    3.11 Summary of Transmission Lines and Waveguides 157

    Other Types of Lines and Guides 158

    4 MICROWAVE NETWORK ANALYSIS 165

    4.1 Impedance and Equivalent Voltages and Currents 166

    Equivalent Voltages and Currents 166

    The Concept of Impedance 170

    Even and Odd Properties of Z() and -() 173

    4.2 Impedance and Admittance Matrices 174

    Reciprocal Networks 175

    Lossless Networks 177

    4.3 The Scattering Matrix 178

    Reciprocal Networks and Lossless Networks 181

    A Shift in Reference Planes 184

    Power Waves and Generalized Scattering Parameters 185

    4.4 The Transmission (ABCD) Matrix 188

    Relation to Impedance Matrix 191

    Equivalent Circuits for Two-Port Networks 191

    4.5 Signal Flow Graphs 194

    Decomposition of Signal Flow Graphs 195

    Application to Thru-Reflect-Line Network Analyzer Calibration 197

    4.6 Discontinuities and Modal Analysis 203

    Modal Analysis of an H-Plane Step in Rectangular Waveguide 203

    4.7 Excitation of Waveguides-Electric and Magnetic Currents 210

    Current Sheets That Excite Only One Waveguide Mode 210

    Mode Excitation from an Arbitrary Electric or Magnetic Current Source 212

    4.8 Excitation of Waveguides-Aperture Coupling 215

    Coupling Through an Aperture in a Transverse Waveguide Wall 218

    Coupling Through an Aperture in the Broad Wall of a Waveguide 220

    5 IMPEDANCE MATCHING AND TUNING 228

    5.1 Matching with Lumped Elements (L Networks) 229

    Analytic Solutions 230

    Smith Chart Solutions 231

    5.2 Single-Stub Tuning 234

    Shunt Stubs 235

    Series Stubs 238

    5.3 Double-Stub Tuning 241

    Smith Chart Solution 242

    Analytic Solution 245

    5.4 The Quarter-Wave Transformer 246

    5.5 The Theory of Small Reflections 250

    Single-Section Transformer 250

    Multisection Transformer 251

    5.6 Binomial Multisection Matching Transformers 252

    5.7 Chebyshev Multisection Matching Transformers 256

    Chebyshev Polynomials 257

    Design of Chebyshev Transformers 258

    5.8 Tapered Lines 261

    Exponential Taper 262

    Triangular Taper 263

    Klopfenstein Taper 264

    5.9 The Bode-Fano Criterion 266

    6 MICROWAVE RESONATORS 272

    6.1 Series and Parallel Resonant Circuits 272

    Series Resonant Circuit 272

    Parallel Resonant Circuit 275

    Loaded and Unloaded Q 277

    6.2 Transmission Line Resonators 278

    Short-Circuited L/2 Line 278

    Short-Circuited L/4 Line 281

    Open-Circuited L/2 Line 282

    6.3 Rectangular Waveguide Cavity Resonators 284

    Resonant Frequencies 284

    Unloaded Q of the TE10- Mode 286

    6.4 Circular Waveguide Cavity Resonator 288

    Resonant Frequencies 289

    Unloaded Q of the TEnm- Mode 291

    6.5 Dielectric Resonators 293

    Resonant Frequencies of TE01 Mode 294

    6.6 Excitation of Resonators 297

    The Coupling Coefficient and Critical Coupling 298

    A Gap-Coupled Microstrip Resonator 299

    An Aperture-Coupled Cavity 302

    Determining Unloaded Q from Two-Port Measurements 305

    6.7 Cavity Perturbations 306

    Material Perturbations 306

    Shape Perturbations 309

    7 POWER DIVIDERS AND DIRECTIONAL COUPLERS 317

    7.1 Basic Properties of Dividers and Douplers 317

    Three-Port Networks (T-Junctions) 318

    Four-Port Networks (Directional Couplers) 320

    7.2 The T-Junction Power Divider 324

    Lossless Divider 324

    Resistive Divider 326

    7.3 The Wilkinson Power Divider 328

    Even-Odd Mode Analysis 328

    Unequal Power Division and N-Way Wilkinson Dividers 332

    7.4 Waveguide Directional Couplers 333

    Bethe Hole Coupler 334

    Design of Multihole Couplers 338

    7.5 The Quadrature (90) Hybrid 343

    Even-Odd Mode Analysis 344

    7.6 Coupled Line Directional Couplers 347

    Coupled Line Theory 347 Design of Coupled Line Couplers 351

    Design of Multisection Coupled Line Couplers 356

    7.7 The Lange Coupler 359

    7.8 The 180 Hybrid 362

    Even-Odd Mode Analysis of the Ring Hybrid 364

    Even-Odd Mode Analysis of the Tapered Coupled Line Hybrid 367

    Waveguide Magic-T 371

    7.9 Other Couplers 372

    8 MICROWAVE FILTERS 380

    8.1 Periodic Structures 381

    Analysis of Infinite Periodic Structures 382

    Terminated Periodic Structures 384

    k- Diagrams and Wave Velocities 385

    8.2 Filter Design by the Image Parameter Method 388

    Image Impedances and Transfer Functions for Two-Port Networks 388

    Constant-k Filter Sections 390

    m-Derived Filter Sections 393

    Composite Filters 396

    8.3 Filter Design by the Insertion Loss Method 399

    Characterization by Power Loss Ratio 399

    Maximally Flat Low-Pass Filter Prototype 402

    Equal-Ripple Low-Pass Filter Prototype 404

    Linear Phase Low-Pass Filter Prototypes 406

    8.4 Filter Transformations 408

    Impedance and Frequency Scaling 408

    Bandpass and Bandstop Transformations 411

    8.5 Filter Implementation 415

    Richards` Transformation 416

    uroda`s Identities 416

    Impedance and Admittance Inverters 421

    8.6 Stepped-Impedance Low-Pass Filters 422

    Approximate Equivalent Circuits for Short Transmission Line Sections 422

    8.7 Coupled Line Filters 426

    Filter Properties of a Coupled Line Section 426

    Design of Coupled Line Bandpass Filters 430

    8.8 Filters Using Coupled Resonators 437

    Bandstop and Bandpass Filters Using Quarter-Wave Resonators 437

    Bandpass Filters Using Capacitively Coupled Series Resonators 441

    Bandpass Filters Using Capacitively Coupled Shunt Resonators 443

    9 THEORY AND DESIGN OF FERRIMAGNETIC COMPONENTS 451

    9.1 Basic Properties of Ferrimagnetic Materials 452

    The Permeability Tensor 452

    Circularly Polarized Fields 458

    Effect of Loss 460

    Demagnetization Factors 462

    9.2 Plane Wave Propagation in a Ferrite Medium 465

    Propagation in Direction of Bias (Faraday Rotation) 465

    Propagation Transverse to Bias (Birefringence) 469

    9.3 Propagation in a Ferrite-Loaded Rectangular Waveguide 471

    TEm0 Modes of Waveguide with a Single Ferrite Slab 471

    TEm0 Modes of Waveguide with Two Symmetrical Ferrite Slabs 474

    9.4 Ferrite Isolators 475

    Resonance Isolators 476

    The Field Displacement Isolator 479

    9.5 Ferrite Phase Shifters 482

    Nonreciprocal Latching Phase Shifter 482

    Other Types of Ferrite Phase Shifters 485

    The Gyrator 486

    9.6 Ferrite Circulators 487

    Properties of a Mismatched Circulator 488

    Junction Circulator 488

    10 NOISE AND NONLINEAR DISTORTION 496

    10.1 Noise in Microwave Circuits 496

    Dynamic Range and Sources of Noise 497

    Noise Power and Equivalent Noise Temperature 498

    Measurement of Noise Temperature 501

    10.2 Noise Figure 502

    Definition of Noise Figure 502

    Noise Figure of a Cascaded System 504

    Noise Figure of a Passive Two-Port Network 506

    Noise Figure of a Mismatched Lossy Line 508

    Noise Figure of a Mismatched Amplifier 510

    10.3 Nonlinear Distortion 511

    Gain Compression 512

    Harmonic and Intermodulation Distortion 513

    Third-Order Intercept Point 515

    Intercept Point of a Cascaded System 516

    Passive Intermodulation 519

    10.4 Dynamic Range 519

    Linear and Spurious Free Dynamic Range 519

    11 ACTIVE RF AND MICROWAVE DEVICES 524

    11.1 Diodes and Diode Circuits 525

    Schottky Diodes and Detectors 525

    PIN Diodes and Control Circuits 530

    Varactor Diodes 537

    Other Diodes 538

    Power Combining 539

    11.2 Bipolar Junction Transistors 540

    Bipolar Junction Transistor 540

    Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor 542

    11.3 Field Effect Transistors 543

    Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor 544

    Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor 546

    High Electron Mobility Transistor 546

    11.4 Microwave Integrated Circuits 547

    Hybrid Microwave Integrated Circuits 548

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits 548

    11.5 Microwave Tubes 552

    12 MICROWAVE AMPLIFIER DESIGN 558

    12.1 Two-Port Power Gains 558

    Definitions of Two-Port Power Gains 559

    Further Discussion of Two-Port Power Gains 562

    12.2 Stability 564

    Stability Circles 564

    Tests for Unconditional Stability 567

    12.3 Single-Stage Transistor Amplifier Design 571

    Design for Maximum Gain (Conjugate Matching) 571

    Constant-Gain Circles and Design for Specified Gain 575

    Low-Noise Amplifier Design 580

    Low-Noise MOSFET Amplifier 582

    12.4 Broadband Transistor Amplifier Design 585

    Balanced Amplifiers 586

    Distributed Amplifiers 588

    Differential Amplifiers 593

    12.5 Power Amplifiers 596

    Characteristics of Power Amplifiers and Amplifier Classes 597

    Large-Signal Characterization of Transistors 598

    12.6 Design of Class A Power Amplifiers 599

    13 OSCILLATORS AND MIXERS 604

    13.1 Rf Oscillators 605

    General Analysis 606

    Oscillators Using a Common Emitter BJT 607

    Oscillators Using a Common Gate FET 609

    Practical Considerations 610

    Crystal Oscillators 612

    13.2 Microwave Oscillators 613

    Transistor Oscillators 615

    Dielectric Resonator Oscillators 617

    13.3 Oscillator Phase Noise 622

    Representation of Phase Noise 623

    Leeson`s Model for Oscillator Phase Noise 624

    13.4 Frequency Multipliers 627

    Reactive Diode Multipliers (Manley-Rowe Relations) 628

    Resistive Diode Multipliers 631

    Transistor Multipliers 633

    13.5 Mixers 637

    Mixer Characteristics 637 Single-Ended Diode Mixer 642

    Single-Ended FET Mixer 643

    Balanced Mixer 646

    Image Reject Mixer 649

    Differential FET Mixer and Gilbert Cell Mixer 650

    Other Mixers 652

    14 INTRODUCTION TO MICROWAVE SYSTEMS 658

    14.1 System Aspects of Antennas 658

    Fields and Power Radiated by an Antenna 660

    Antenna Pattern Characteristics 662

    Antenna Gain and Efficiency 664

    Aperture Efficiency and Effective Area 665

    Background and Brightness Temperature 666

    Antenna Noise Temperature and G/T 669

    14.2 Wireless Communications 671

    The Friis Formula 673

    Link Budget and Link Margin 674

    Radio Receiver Architectures 676

    Noise Characterization of a Receiver 679

    Digital Modulation and Bit Error Rate 681

    Wireless Communication Systems 684

    14.3 Radar Systems 690

    The Radar Equation 691

    Pulse Radar 693 Doppler Radar 694

    Radar Cross Section 695

    14.4 Radiometer Systems 696

    Theory and Applications of Radiometry 697

    Total Power Radiometer 699

    The Dicke Radiometer 700

    14.5 Microwave Propagation 701

    Atmospheric Effects 701

    Ground Effects 703

    Plasma Effects 704

    14.6 Other Applications and Topics 705

    Microwave Heating 705

    Power Transfer 705

    Biological Effects and Safety 706

    APPENDICES 712

    A Prefixes 713

    B Vector Analysis 713

    C Bessel Functions 715

    D Other Mathematical Results 718

    E Physical Constants 718

    F Conductivities for Some Materials 719

    G Dielectric Constants and Loss Tangents for Some Materials 719

    H Properties of Some Microwave Ferrite Materials 720

    I Standard Rectangular Waveguide Data 720

    J Standard Coaxial Cable Data 722

    ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 723

    INDEX 00
    Extra informatie: 
    Hardback
    752 pagina's
    Januari 2011
    1206 gram
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