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The LTE / SAE Deployment Handbook

€ 131.95

A hands-on description of the complete end-to-end functionality, network planning and physical construction of LTE networks, The LTE/SAE Deployment Handbook: The Functioning, Measurements and Planning of Evolved Packet System is unique in its practical approach to the topic.


Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:
List of Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Glossary

1 General

1.1 Introduction

1.2 The LTE Scene

1.3 The Role of LTE in Mobile Communications

1.4 LTE/SAE Deployment Process

1.5 The Contents of the Book

References

2 Drivers for LTE/SAE

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Mobile System Generations

2.3 Data Service Evolution

2.3.1 Development up to 3G

2.3.2 Demand for Multimedia

2.3.3 Commercial LTE Deployments

2.3.4 LTE Refarming Eases Development

2.4 Reasons for the Deployment of LTE

2.4.1 General

2.4.2 Relationship with Alternative Models

2.4.3 TD-LTE versus FD-LTE

2.5 Next Steps of LTE/SAE

2.6 Summary of the Benefits of LTE

References

3 LTE/SAE Overview

3.1 Introduction

3.2 LTE/SAE Standards

3.3 How to Find Information from Specs?

3.4 Evolution Path Towards LTE

3.5 Key Parameters of LTE

3.6 LTE vs WiMAX

3.7 Models for Roaming Architecture

3.7.1 Roaming Functionality

3.7.2 Operator Challenges

3.7.3 CS Fallback

3.7.4 Inter-Operator Security Aspects

3.7.5 Selection of Voice Service Method

3.7.6 Roaming and Interconnection Aspects of LTE/SAE

3.8 LTE/SAE Services

3.8.1 Data

3.8.2 Voice 39

3.8.3 MBMS 39

3.9 LTE-Advanced - Next Generation LTE 403.9.1 Key Aspects of LTE-Advanced

3.9.2 Comparison of 3G and 4G

3.9.3 Enablers for the LTE-Advanced Performance

References

4 Performance Requirements

4.1 Introduction

4.2 LTE Key Features

4.2.1 Release 8

4.2.2 Release 9

4.2.3 Release 10

4.3 Standards LTE Requirements

4.3.1 Early Ideas of LTE

4.3.2 Standard Radio Requirements of LTE

4.3.3 Data Performance

4.3.4 LTE-UE Requirements

4.3.5 Delay Requirements for Backhaul

4.3.6 System Architecture Evolution

4.4 Effects of the Requirements on the LTE/SAE Network Deployment

4.4.1 Evolved Environment

4.4.2 Spectral Efficiency

References

5 LTE and SAE Architecture

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Elements

5.2.1 eNodeB

5.2.2 S-GW

5.2.3 P-GW

5.2.4 MME

5.2.5 GSM and UMTS Domain

5.2.6 Packet Data Network

5.3 Interfaces

5.3.1 Uu Interface

5.3.2 X2 Interface

5.3.3 S1 Interface

5.3.4 S3 Interface

5.3.5 S4 Interface

5.3.6 S5 Interface

5.3.7 S6a Interface

5.3.8 S11 Interface

5.3.9 SGi

5.3.10 Gn/Gp

5.4 Protocol Stacks

5.4.1 User Plane

5.4.2 Control Plane

5.4.3 Layer 1

5.4.4 Layer 2

5.4.5 Layer 3

5.5 Layer 2 Structure

References

6 Transport and Core Network

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Functionality of Transport Elements

6.2.1 Transport Modules

6.2.2 LTE Transport Protocol Stack

6.2.3 Ethernet Transport

6.2.4 IP Address Differentiation

6.2.5 Traffic Prioritization on the IP Layer

6.2.6 Traffic Prioritization on Ethernet Layer

6.2.7 VLAN Based Traffic Differentiation

6.2.8 IPsec

6.2.9 Synchronization

6.2.10 Timing Over Packet

6.2.11 Synchronous Ethernet

6.3 Transport Network

6.3.1 Carrier Ethernet Transport

6.3.2 Transport for S1-U Interface

6.4 Core Network

6.5 IP Multimedia Subsystem

6.5.1 IMS Architecture

References

7 LTE Radio Network

7.1 Introduction

7.2 LTE Radio Interface

7.3 LTE Spectrum

7.4 OFDM and OFDMA

7.4.1 General Principle

7.4.2 OFDM Transceiver Chain

7.4.3 Cyclic Prefix

7.4.4 Channel Estimation and Equalization

7.4.5 Modulation

7.4.6 Coding

7.4.7 Signal Processing Chain

7.5 SC-FDM and SC-FDMA

7.5.1 SC-FDM Transceiver Chain

7.5.2 PAPR Benefits

7.6 Reporting

7.6.1 CSI

7.6.2 CQI

7.6.3 RI

7.6.4 PMI

7.7 LTE Radio Resource Management

7.7.1 Introduction

7.7.2 QoS and Associated Parameters

7.8 RRM Principles and Algorithms Common to UL and DL

7.8.1 Connection Mobility Control

7.8.2 Admission Control

7.8.3 HARQ

7.8.4 Link Adaptation

7.8.5 Packet Scheduling

7.8.6 Load Balancing

7.9 Uplink RRM

7.9.1 Packet Scheduling: Specific UL Constraints

7.9.2 Link Adaptation

7.9.3 Uplink Signaling for Scheduling and Link Adaptation Support

7.10 Downlink RRM

7.10.1 Channel Quality, Feedback and Link Adaptation

7.10.2 Packet Scheduling

7.10.3 Inter Cell Interference Control

7.11 Intra-LTE Handover

References

8 Terminals and Applications

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Effect of Smartphones on LTE

8.2.1 General

8.2.2 Is LTE Capable Enough to Handle the Challenge?

8.2.3 LTE RRC States

8.3 Interworking

8.3.1 Simultaneous Support for LTE/SAE and 2G/3G

8.3.2 Support for CS Fallback and VoLTE

8.4 LTE Terminal Requirements

8.4.1 Performance

8.4.2 LTE-UE Categories

8.4.3 HW Architecture

8.4.4 Conformance Test Aspects

8.5 LTE Applications

8.5.1 Non-Operator Applications

8.5.2 Rich Communication Suite

8.5.3 LTE/SAE and RCS

References

9 Voice Over LTE

9.1 Introduction

9.2 CS Fallback for Evolved Packet System

9.3 SMS Over SGs

9.3.1 Functionality

9.3.2 Combined EPS/IMSI Attachment

9.3.3 Mobile Originated Short Message

9.3.4 Mobile Terminating Short Message

9.3.5 Deployment View

9.4 Voice and Other CS Services than SMS

9.4.1 Voice and Video Call

9.4.2 Call Unrelated to Supplementary and Location Services

9.4.3 Deployment View

9.5 Voice and SMS Over IP

9.5.1 IP Multimedia Subsystem

9.5.2 Voice and Video Telephony Over IP

9.6 Summary

References

10 Functionality of LTE/SAE

10.1 Introduction

10.2 States

10.2.1 Mobility Management

10.2.2 Handover

10.2.3 Connection Management

10.2.4 Authentication

10.2.5 Tracking Area

10.2.6 Paging Procedure

10.3 End-to-End Functionality

10.4 LTE/SAE Roaming

10.4.1 General

10.4.2 Roaming Architecture

10.4.3 Inter-Operator Connectivity

10.4.4 Home Routing

10.4.5 Local Breakout

10.4.6 Home Routing versus Local Breakout

10.4.7 Other Features

10.4.8 APN Usage

10.4.9 Service-Specific Aspects

10.5 Charging

10.5.1 Offline Charging

10.5.2 Charging Data Record

10.5.3 Online Charging

References

11 LTE/SAE Security

11.1 Introduction

11.2 LTE Security Risk Identification

11.2.1 Security Process

11.2.2 Network Attack Types in LTE/SAE

11.2.3 Preparation for Attacks

11.2.4 Certificates

11.2.5 LTE Transport Security

11.2.6 Traffic Filtering

11.2.7 Radio Interface Security

11.3 LTE/SAE Service Security - Case Example

11.3.1 General

11.3.2 IPSec

11.3.3 IPSec Processing and Security Gateway

11.3.4 Single Tunnel with Dedicated Tunnel Interfaces

11.3.5 Single Tunnel with Shared Tunnel Interfaces

11.3.6 Multiple Tunnels with Dedicated Tunnel Interfaces

11.3.7 Multiple Tunnels with Shared Tunnel Interfaces

11.3.8 Summary

11.4 Authentication and Authorization

11.5 Customer Data Safety

11.6 Lawful Interception

References

12 Planning and Deployment of SAE

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Network Evolution from 2G/3G PS Core to EPC

12.2.1 3GPP R8 Requirements for LTE Support in Packet Core Network

12.2.2 Introducing LTE in Operator Network

12.3 Entering Commercial Phase: Support for Multi-Mode LTE/3G/2G Terminals with Pre-Release 8 SGSN

12.3.1 Support for Multi-Mode LTE/3G/2G Terminals with Release 8 Network

12.3.2 Optimal Solution for 2G/3G SGSN and MME from Architecture Point of View

12.4 SGSN/MME Evolution

12.4.1 Requirements to MME Functionality in LTE Networks

12.5 Case Example: Commercial SGSN/MME Offering

12.5.1 Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Network Server

12.5.2 Aspects to Consider in SGSN/MME Evolution Planning

12.6 Mobile Gateway Evolution

12.6.1 Requirements to Mobile Gateway in Mobile Broadband Networks

12.7 Case Example: Commercial GGSN/S-GW/P-GW Offering

12.7.1 Nokia Siemens Networks Flexi Network Gateway

12.7.2 Aspects to Consider in GGSN/S-GW/P-GW Evolution Planning

12.8 EPC Network Deployment and Topology Considerations

12.8.1 EPC Topology Options

12.8.2 EPC Topology Evolution

12.9 LTE Access Dimensioning

13 Radio Network Planning

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Radio Network Planning Process

13.3 Nominal Network Planning

13.3.1 Quality of Service

13.4 Capacity Planning

13.5 Coverage Planning

13.5.1 Radio Link Budget

13.5.2 Radio Propagation Models

13.5.3 Frequency Planning

13.5.4 Other Planning Aspects

13.6 Self-Optimizing Network

Reference

14 LTE/SAE Measurements

14.1 Introduction

14.2 General

14.2.1 Measurement Points

14.3 Principles of Radio Interface Measurements

14.3.1 LTE Specific Issues for the Measurements

14.3.2 LTE Traffic Simulators

14.3.3 Typical LTE Measurements

14.3.4 Type Approval Measurements

14.3.5 Modulation Error Measurements

14.3.6 LTE Performance Simulations

14.4 LTE Field Measurements

14.4.1 Typical Field Test Environment

14.4.2 Test Network Setup

14.4.3 Test Case Selection

14.4.4 Items to Assure

14.5 Evolution Changes the Rules of Testing

14.6 General Test Requirements and Methods for the LTE Air Interface

14.6.1 OFDM Radio Testing

14.6.2 MIMO Testing

14.6.3 L1 Testing

14.6.4 L2/L3 Testing in LTE

14.6.5 UE Test Loop Modes

14.7 Test Requirements in SAE

14.7.1 Testing at the Network Service Level

14.8 Throughput Testing

14.8.1 End-to-End Network Innovation

14.8.2 Base Station Scheduler as Key Controller of Radio Resources

14.8.3 L1 Performance vs. L3/PDCP Throughput

14.8.4 OTA (Over The Air) Testing

14.8.5 Summary

14.9 Self-Organizing Network Techniques for Test and Measurement

14.9.1 SON Definition and Basic Principles

14.9.2 Technical Issues and Impact on Network Planning

14.9.3 Effects on Network Installation, Commissioning and Optimization Strategies

14.9.4 Conclusion

14.10 Field Testing

14.10.1 LTE Coverage and Power Quality Measurements

14.10.2 Guidelines for LTE Measurements

References

15 Recommendations

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Transition to LTE - Use Cases

15.2.1 Total Swap

15.2.2 Hot Spots

15.3 Spectrum Aspects

15.3.1 General View on Spectrum Allocation

15.3.2 Coexistence with GSM

15.4 Effect of the Advanced GSM Features on the Fluent LTE Deployment

15.4.1 Common BCCH

15.4.2 AMR Full and Half Rate

15.4.3 Single Antenna Interference Cancellation

15.4.4 Orthogonal Subchannel

15.4.5 Antenna Hopping

15.4.6 EGPRS2 and Downlink Dual Carrier

15.4.7 Dynamic Frequency and Channel Allocation

15.4.8 Signaling Improvements

15.5 Alternative Network Migration Path (Multi-Operator Case)

15.5.1 Introduction to Network Sharing Variants

15.5.2 MORAN and MOBSS

15.5.3 MOCN

15.5.4 National Roaming, Geographical Roaming and IMSI Based Handover

15.6 Hardware Migration Path

15.6.1 Colocated Antenna Systems

15.6.2 Colocation with Shared Multi-Radio Base Station

15.7 Mobile Backhaul----Towards `All-IP` Transport

15.7.1 Motivation to IP Evolution in Mobile Backhaul

15.7.2 Transport Aspects in Packet Backhaul

15.8 LTE Interworking with Legacy Networks for the Optimal Voice and Data Services

15.8.1 Intersystem Mobility Management for Data Services

15.8.2 CS Fallback

15.8.3 Idle Mode Signaling Reduction

References

Index
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