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Young W. Park

Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition

Composition, Production and Health

€ 279.95

The first book to cover the whole spectrum of the science of milk and its production, processing, and effects, this text addresses milk secretion, production, sanitation, flavor, chemistry, and processing technology as well as the nutritional and health properties of milk and manufactured products.


Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:
Contributors Preface    1 Production Systems around the World Christian F. Gall 1.1 Ecological conditions 1.2 Systems 1.2.1 Small-scale milk production 1.2.2 Specialised milk production in large commercial dairies 1.2.3 Dairy ranching 1.2.4 Urban dairies 1.2.5 Pastoralists 1.3 Feed resources 1.4 Animal species used for milk production 1.4.1 Cattle 1.4.1.1 Milk yield 1.4.1.2 Milk composition 1.4.1.3 Milk production in the tropics 1.4.2 Sheep and goats 1.4.3 Buffalo 1.4.4 Camel 1.4.5 Mare 1.4.6 Yak 1.4.7 Reindeer 1.5 Breed improvement 1.5.1 Pure breeding 1.5.2 Artificial insemination 1.5.3 Embryo transfer 1.5.4 Genomic selection 1.5.5 Crossbreeding 1.6 Nutrition 1.7 Animal health 1.8 Reproduction 1.9 Rearing of youngstock 1.10 Housing 1.11 Milking 1.12 Milk marketing 1.12.1 Marketing by smallholders 1.12.2 Milk collection 1.12.3 Producer organisations 1.13 Economics of milk production 1.13.1 Productivity 1.13.2 Longevity and lifetime production 1.14 Criticism of milk production 1.14.1 Resource use 1.14.2 Impact on the environment 1.15 Dairy development References  2 Mammary Secretion and Lactation Young W. Park, Pierre-Guy Marnet, Lucile Yart, and George F.W. Haenlein 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Origin and anatomy of mammary glands 2.2.1 Types of mammalian species and mammary glands 2.2.2 Anatomy of mammary glands of domestic animals 2.3 Mammogenesis and mammary gland growth 2.4 Milk ejection (lactogenesis) and secretion 2.5 Maintenance of lactation (galactopoiesis) 2.6 Secretion of milk and its constituents 2.6.1 Types of milk secretion 2.6.2 Milk secretion process 2.6.3 Comparative composition of blood and milk nutrients 2.7 Involution of the mammary gland 2.8 Challenges and opportunities in mammary secretion today and tomorrow References  3 Milking Procedures and Facilities Pierre-Guy Marnet 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Machine milked animals throughout the world 3.3 Milking principles 3.4 Milking machine components and effects on milk harvesting and quality 3.4.1 Vacuum system 3.4.2 Pulsation system 3.4.3 Mechanical effect of machine milking on milk quality 3.4.3.1 Specific action of cluster and liners 3.4.3.2 Specific action at the milk pump level 3.4.4 Optional components 3.4.5 Milking parlors and milking stalls 3.4.6 Storing and cooling devices 3.4.7 Cleaning systems 3.4.8 New kinds of materials and sensing devices for better milk quality 3.5 Milking practices 3.6 Milking management of animals 3.6.1 Lowering milking frequency 3.6.2 Increasing milking frequency (three milkings and more per day) 3.7 Conclusions References  4 Milk Lipids Michael H. Gordon 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Fatty acids 4.3 Triacylglycerols 4.4 Polar lipids: phospholipids and cholesterol 4.5 Conjugated linoleic acids 4.6 Genetic influences on milk fat concentrations and fatty acid profiles 4.7 Influence of feeds, feeding regimes, pasture and stage of lactation on milk lipids and their levels 4.8 Digestion of milk fat 4.9 Nutritional effects of milk fatty acids 4.10 Evidence for effects of milk fat on CVD from prospective cohort studies 4.11 Evidence about the effects of dairy products on non-lipid risk factors 4.12 Conclusion References  5 Milk Major and Minor Proteins, Polymorphisms and Non-protein Nitrogen Sándor Kukovics and Tímea Németh 5.1 Milk proteins 5.1.1 Factors affecting the protein content of the milk 5.2 The major milk proteins 5.2.1 Caseins 5.2.1.1 ás1-Casein 5.2.1.2 ás2-Casein 5.2.1.3 â-Casein 5.2.1.4 ê-Casein 5.2.1.5 The question of casein structure 5.2.1.6 The importance of casein structure 5.2.2 Whey (serum) proteins 5.2.2.1 á-Lactalbumin 5.2.2.2 â-Lactoglobulin 5.3 The polymorphisms of milk proteins 5.3.1 The presence of polymorphisms in cattle populations 5.3.2 Effects on milk production 5.3.3 Effects on milk composition 5.3.4 Interactions 5.3.5 Effects on cheesemaking properties 5.3.5.1 â-Lactoglobulin 5.3.5.2 ê-Casein 5.3.5.3 â-Casein 5.4 Milk protein variants and human nutrition: the human benefit 5.4.1 Hypoallergenic milk 5.4.2 Biopeptides 5.5 The minor proteins 5.5.1 Lactoferrin 5.5.2 Serum albumin (bovine serum albumin) 5.5.3 Immunoglobulins 5.5.4 Hormones 5.5.5 Growth factors 5.5.6 Milk enzymes 5.5.6.1 Lysozyme 5.5.6.2 Lactoperoxidase 5.5.7 Metal-binding proteins 5.5.8 Vitamin-binding proteins 5.5.9 Glycoproteins 5.5.10 Lactollin 5.5.11 â2-Microglobulin 5.5.12 Osteopontin 5.5.13 Proteose peptone  5.5.14 Milk fat globule membrane proteins 5.6 Non-protein nitrogen 5.6.1 Urea References  6 Milk Protein Allergy Melanie L. Downs, Jamie L. Kabourek, Joseph L. Baumert, and Steve L. Taylor 6.1 Introduction 6.2 IgE-mediated food allergy 6.2.1 Mechanism 6.2.2 Commonly allergenic foods 6.2.3 Sensitization and its prevention 6.2.4 Diagnosis of food allergies 6.2.5 Prevention and treatment of food allergy 6.2.6 Cows’ milk and avoidance diets 6.3 Delayed food allergies 6.4 Cows’ milk allergy 6.4.1 Whey proteins 6.4.1.1 â-Lactoglobulin 6.4.1.2 á-Lactalbumin 6.4.1.3 Minor whey proteins 6.4.2 Caseins 6.5 Cross-reactivity with milk from other species 6.6 Effects of processing on allergenicity 6.7 Other mechanisms References  7 Milk Carbohydrates and Oligosaccharides Alessandra Crisà 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Lactose and minor sugar 7.2.1 Composition and concentration of carbohydrate in milk and dairy products of different species 7.3 Oligosaccharides 7.3.1 Purification and characterization of oligosaccharides from milk 7.3.2 Methods for structural analysis 7.3.3 Composition and concentration of oligosaccharides in milk of different species 7.4 Carbohydrates as prebiotics in the gastrointestinal tract 7.5 Other oligosaccharide functions 7.6 Genetics of carbohydrate metabolism during lactation References 8 Milk Bioactive Proteins and Peptides Hannu J. Korhonen and Pertti Marnila 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Caseins 8.3 Whey proteins 8.3.1 á-Lactalbumin 8.3.2 â-Lactoglobulin 8.3.3 Glycomacropeptide 8.3.4 Lactoferrin 8.3.4.1 Antimicrobial effects 8.3.4.2 Immunological effects and cancer prevention 8.3.4.3 Applications and safety aspects 8.3.5 Lactoperoxidase and lysozyme 8.3.5.1 Lactoperoxidase 8.3.5.2 Lysozyme 8.3.6 Growth factors and cytokines 8.3.7 Immunoglobulins 8.3.7.1 Functions of immunoglobulins 8.3.7.2 Immunoglobulins and immune milk preparations 8.4 Bioactive peptides 8.4.1 Production systems 8.4.2 Functionality 8.4.2.1 Antihypertensive 8.4.2.2 Antimicrobial 8.4.2.3 Immunomodulatory 8.4.2.4 Mineral binding 8.4.3 Occurrence in dairy products 8.4.4 Applications 8.5 Other minor proteins 8.6 Conclusions References 9 Milk Minerals, Trace Elements, and Macroelements Frédéric Gaucheron 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Macroelements in milk and dairy products from the cow 9.2.1 Calcium (Ca) 9.2.1.1 Calcium in the human organism and biological roles 9.2.1.2 Contents and chemical forms of Ca in milk and dairy products 9.2.1.3 Dairy contribution to the total Ca intake and Ca absorption 9.2.1.4 Physiological roles of Ca from milk and dairy products 9.2.1.5 Calcium supplementation of dairy products 9.2.2 Phosphorus (P) 9.2.2.1 Phosphorus in the human organism and biological roles 9.2.2.2 Contents and chemical forms of P in milk and dairy products 9.2.2.3 Dairy contribution to the total P intake and P absorption 9.2.3 Magnesium (Mg) 9.2.3.1 Magnesium in the human organism and biological roles 9.2.3.2 Contents and chemical forms of Mg in milk and dairy products 9.2.3.3 Dairy contribution to the total Mg intake and Mg absorption 9.2.4 Sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) 9.2.4.1 Sodium, chloride, and potassium in the human organism and biological roles 9.2.4.2 Contents and chemical forms of Na, Cl, and K in milk and dairy products 9.2.4.3 Dairy contribution to the total Na, Cl, and K intakes and Na, Cl, and K absorptions 9.3 Trace elements in milk and dairy products from the cow 9.3.1 Iron (Fe) 9.3.1.1 Iron in the human organism and biological roles 9.3.1.2 Contents and chemical forms of Fe in milk and dairy products 9.3.1.3 Dairy contribution to the total Fe intake and Fe absorption 9.3.1.4 Iron supplementation of dairy products 9.3.2 Copper (Cu) 9.3.2.1 Copper in the human organism and biological roles 9.3.2.2 Contents and chemical forms of Cu in milk and dairy products 9.3.2.3 Dairy contribution to the total Cu intake and Cu absorption 9.3.3 Zinc (Zn) 9.3.3.1 Zinc in the human organism and biological roles 9.3.3.2 Contents and chemical forms of Zn in milk and dairy products 9.3.3.3 Dairy contribution to the total Zn intake and Zn absorption 9.3.4 Selenium (Se) 9.3.4.1 Selenium in the human organism and biological roles 9.3.4.2 Contents and chemical forms of Se in milk and dairy products 9.3.4.3 Dairy contribution to the total Se intake 9.3.4.4 Selenium supplementation of dairy products 9.3.5 The other trace elements in milk and dairy products from the cow 9.3.5.1 Manganese (Mn) 9.3.5.2 Iodine (I) 9.3.5.3 Fluoride (F) 9.3.5.4 Chromium (Cr) 9.3.5.5 Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) 9.3.5.6 Cobalt (Co) 9.3.5.7 Molybdenum (Mo) 9.3.5.8 Arsenic (As) 9.3.5.9 Nickel (Ni) 9.3.5.10 Silicon (Si) 9.3.5.11 Boron (B) 9.4 Minerals in milk and dairy products of other species 9.4.1 Sheep 9.4.2 Goat 9.4.3 Buffalo 9.4.4 Yak 9.4.5 Camel 9.4.6 Mare 9.5 Conclusion References 10 Vitamins in Milks Benoît Graulet, Bruno Martin, Claire Agabriel and Christiane L. Girard 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Availability of vitamins in milk in relation to human health 10.2.1 Fat-soluble vitamins 10.2.1.1 Vitamin A 10.2.1.2 Vitamin D 10.2.1.3 Vitamin E 10.2.1.4 Vitamin K 10.2.2 Water-soluble vitamins 10.2.2.1 B-complex vitamins 10.2.2.2 Vitamin C 10.2.3 Differences in milk vitamin content between bovine and other dairy species 10.3 Animal and nutritional factors modulating vitamin content in bovine milk 10.3.1 Effects of feeding practices on vitamin concentrations in milk 10.3.2 Non-dietary factors affecting milk concentrations of vitamins 10.4 Vitamin content in cheeses 10.5 Conclusions References 11 Milk Minor Constituents, Enzymes, Hormones, Growth Factors, and Organic Acids Lígia R. Rodrigues 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Milk minor constituents 11.2.1 Salts and minerals 11.2.2 Vitamins 11.2.3 Immune components 11.2.4 Bioactive peptides 11.2.5 Polyamines 11.2.6 Nucleotides 11.2.7 Proteose peptones 11.2.8 Branched-chain amino acids and other amino acids 11.2.9 Taurine 11.2.10 Glutathione 11.3 Milk enzymes 11.3.1 Lactoperoxidase 11.3.2 Catalase 11.3.3 Xanthine oxidoreductase 11.3.4 Proteinases 11.3.4.1 Plasmin 11.3.4.2 Cathepsin D 11.3.5 Lipases and esterases 11.3.6 Amylase 11.3.7 Alkaline phosphatase 11.3.8 Acid phosphatase 11.3.9 Ribonuclease 11.3.10 N -Acetyl-â-d-glucosaminidase 11.3.11 Lysozyme 11.3.12 ã-Glutamyl transferase 11.3.13 Superoxide dismutase 11.3.14 Sulfhydryl oxidase 11.3.15 Aldolase 11.3.16 Glutathione peroxidase 11.4 Milk hormones and growth factors 11.4.1 Hormones 11.4.1.1 Gonadal hormones 11.4.1.2 Adrenal gland hormones 11.4.1.3 Pituitary hormones 11.4.1.4 Hypothalamic hormones 11.4.1.5 Other hormones 11.4.2 Growth factors 11.5 Milk organic acids 11.6 Future perspectives and concerns References 12 Lactose Intolerance Salam A. Ibrahim and Rabin Gyawali 12.1 Introduction 12.1.1 Lactose and lactase 12.1.2 Types of lactose intolerance 12.1.3 Symptoms of lactose intolerance 12.1.4 Methods to quantify lactose maldigestion 12.1.4.1 Direct measurements 12.1.4.2 Indirect measurements 12.1.5 Prevalence, age, gender, and genetics 12.1.6 Non-probiotic dietary approach to alleviate lactose intolerance 12.1.7 Intestinal microflora, fermentation, and fermented foods 12.1.8 Use of probiotics to alleviate lactose intolerance 12.2 Conclusions References 13 Milk Quality Standards and Controls Young W. Park, Marzia Albenzio, Agostino Sevi, and George F.W. Haenlein 13.1 Introduction 13.2 General principles for production of quality milk 13.3 Regulatory standards of quality milk and dairy products for different species 13.4 Quality control principles for milk production on dairy farms 13.5 HACCP plans and hazard components in the production of quality dairy products 13.6 Recommended control systems for production of quality milk products 13.7 Etiology of mastitis and milk hygiene 13.8 Cell types and composition of milk in response to mammary gland inflammation 13.9 Flow cytometric method for leukocyte differential count 13.10 Factors affecting milk composition and yield in relation to milk quality 13.10.1 Diet 13.10.2 Breed 13.10.3 Stage of lactation 13.10.4 Season 13.10.5 Environmental temperature 13.10.6 Ventilation 13.10.7 Milking machine 13.10.8 Stocking density 13.10.9 Diseases 13.10.10 Colostrum 13.10.11 Others 13.11 Factors affecting quality of raw milk before and after milking 13.11.1 Factors affecting quality of raw milk before and during milking 13.11.2 Factors affecting quality of raw milk after milking 13.12 Pasteurization and post-pasteurization treatments for production of quality milk 13.12.1 Pasteurization 13.12.2 Vat pasteurization 13.12.3 Post-pasteurization contamination References 14 Sanitary Procedures, Heat Treatments and Packaging Golfo Moatsou 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Sanitary aspects related to raw milk 14.2.1 Important microbiological aspects 14.2.2 Pathogenic microorganisms 14.2.3 Psychrotrophic microorganisms 14.2.4 Non-microbial contaminants in milk 14.2.5 Handling of raw milk: measures for controlling its keeping quality prior to processing 14.2.5.1 Biofilm control 14.2.5.2 Cooling and thermisation 14.2.5.3 Lactoperoxidase system 14.2.5.4 Carbon dioxide addition 14.2.5.5 Centrifugation, clarification and bactofugation 14.2.5.6 Microfiltration 14.3 Strategies for producing heat-treated milk for human consumption 14.3.1 Pasteurisation 14.3.2 UHT treatment 14.3.3 Extended shelf-life technology 14.3.4 Types of heat treatment 14.3.5 Packaging 14.4 Effects of heat treatments on milk 14.4.1 Effect on milk constituents 14.4.1.1 Proteins 14.4.1.2 Enzymes 14.4.1.3 Vitamins 14.4.2 Formation of new substances 14.4.2.1 Isomerisation of lactose to lactulose 14.4.2.2 Maillard reaction products 14.4.3 Others 14.5 Conclusions References 15 Sensory and Flavor Characteristics of Milk Irma V. Wolf, Carina V. Bergamini, Maria C. Perotti, and Erica R. Hynes 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Significance of flavor and off-flavor on milk quality: sensory and instrumental methods 15.3 Milk from ruminant species 15.3.1 Volatile profile and sensory characteristics of fresh milk 15.3.2 Variations in flavor of fresh milk from ruminant species 15.3.2.1 Variations in milk flavor associated with farm management 15.3.2.2 Variations in milk flavor associated with factory management 15.3.3 Volatile profile and sensory characteristics of heat-treated milk 15.3.3.1 Ultrapasteurized milk and ultra-high-temperature treated milk 15.3.3.2 Milk powder, sterilized, and concentrated milk 15.3.3.3 Infant formula 15.3.4 Variations in flavor of heat-treated milk 15.3.4.1 Ultrapasteurized milk and ultra-high-temperature treated milk 15.3.4.2 Milk powder, sterilized, and concentrated milk 15.3.4.3 Infant formula 15.3.5 Volatile profile and sensory characteristics of non-thermally treated milk 15.3.5.1 Microfiltration 15.3.5.2 Ultrasound 15.3.5.3 Pulsed electric field 15.3.5.4 Microwave 15.3.5.5 High hydrostatic pressure 15.3.5.6 Ultra-high-pressure homogenization 15.4 Milk from monogastric species References 16 Fermented Milk and Yogurt Sae-Hun Kim and Sejong Oh 16.1 General aspects of fermented milk 16.1.1 Yogurts 16.1.1.1 Types of yogurt 16.1.1.2 Production and consumption 16.1.1.3 Recent new product trends 16.1.2 Other fermented bovine milk products 16.1.2.1 Cultured buttermilk 16.1.2.2 Cultured cream 16.1.2.3 Acidophilus milk 16.1.2.4 Kefir 16.1.2.5 Other fermented milk products 16.1.3 Fermented milk and yogurt products from other dairy species 16.1.3.1 Fermented goat milk products 16.1.3.2 Fermented sheep milk products 16.1.3.3 Fermented buffalo milk products 16.1.3.4 Fermented mare milk products 16.2 Standards and regulations 16.2.1 International Codex Standard 16.2.1.1 Description 16.2.1.2 Composition 16.2.2 USA, Australia and New Zealand, and Europe 16.2.2.1 Description 16.2.2.2 Composition 16.2.3 China 16.2.3.1 Description 16.2.3.2 Composition 16.2.4 Japan 16.2.4.1 Description 16.2.4.2 Composition 16.2.5 Korea 16.2.5.1 Description 16.2.5.2 Composition 16.3 Health benefits of fermented milk products 16.3.1 Nutritional benefits 16.3.2 Diarrheal disease 16.3.3 Immune regulation 16.3.4 Prevention of osteoporosis 16.3.5 Cholesterol reduction 16.3.6 Cancer prevention 16.4 Future aspects References 17 Cheese Science and Technology Patrick F. Fox and Timothy P. Guinee 17.1 Introduction 17.2 Selection and treatment of milk 17.2.1 Milk of different species 17.2.2 Standardisation of milk composition 17.2.3 Heat treatment of milk 17.2.4 Cheese colour 17.3 Conversion of milk to cheese curd 17.3.1 Acidification and starter cultures 17.3.2 Secondary cultures 17.3.3 Coagulation 17.3.4 Rennet-coagulated cheeses 17.4 Post-coagulation operations 17.4.1 Cutting the gel 17.4.2 Cooking the curds 17.4.3 Syneresis 17.4.4 Draining the curd 17.4.5 Cheddaring of the curd 17.4.6 Curd washing 17.4.7 Moulding and pressing 17.4.8 Salting 17.4.8.1 Nutritional significance of salt in cheese 17.4.9 Packaging 17.5 Membrane processing in cheese technology 17.6 Ripening 17.6.1 Ripening agents 17.6.2 Ripening reactions 17.6.2.1 Glycolysis and related events 17.6.2.2 Lipolysis 17.6.2.3 Proteolysis 17.6.3 Accelerated ripening of cheese 17.7 Factors that affect the quality of cheese 17.8 Cheese flavour 17.9 Cheese texture 17.9.1 Measurement of cheese texture 17.9.2 Textural characteristics of different cheeses 17.9.3 Texture at the macrostructural level 17.10 Processed cheese products 17.10.1 Principles of manufacture 17.10.2 Uses and characteristics of PCPs 17.10.3 Cheese analogues 17.11 Cheese as a food ingredient 17.12 Cheese production and consumption 17.13 Classification of cheese 17.14 Cheese as a source of nutrients 17.14.1 Fat in cheese 17.14.2 Protein in cheese 17.14.3 Lactose 17.14.4 Inorganic elements 17.14.5 Vitamins 17.15 Conclusions References 18 Butter, Ghee, and Cream Products Hae-Soo Kwak, Palanivel Ganesan, and Mohammad Al Mijan 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Manufacture of butter, ghee, and cream products 18.2.1 Butter 18.2.2 Ghee 18.2.3 Cream 18.2.3.1 Coffee cream 18.2.3.2 Cultured cream 18.2.3.3 Whipping cream 18.3 Nutritive values of butter, ghee, and cream 18.3.1 Butter 18.3.2 Ghee 18.3.3 Cream 18.4 Human health benefit components in butter, ghee, and cream 18.4.1 Milk fat globule membrane 18.4.2 Health benefits of MFGM polar lipids 18.4.3 Sphingolipids: anticholesterol effect and heart disease 18.4.4 Sphingolipids and cancer 18.4.5 Sphingolipids: bactericidal effect 18.4.6 Sphingolipids: effects on diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease 18.4.7 Sphingolipids and multiple sclerosis 18.4.8 Phospholipids 18.4.9 Protein fractions of MFGM 18.4.9.1 Anticancer effects 18.4.9.2 MFGM proteins, autism, and multiple sclerosis 18.4.9.3 Antibacterial and antiadhesive effects of MFGM proteins 18.5 Conjugated linoleic acid 18.5.1 Carcinogenesis 18.5.2 Colonic and colorectal cancer 18.5.3 Breast cancer 18.5.4 Gastrointestinal cancer 18.5.5 Diabetes 18.5.6 Obesity 18.5.7 Atherosclerosis 18.5.8 Immunity 18.5.9 Bone health 18.6 Short- and medium-chain fatty acids 18.7 New approach on cholesterol removal in butter, ghee, and cream 18.8 Conclusion References 19 Condensed and Powdered Milk Pierre Schuck 19.1 Introduction 19.2 World dairy powder situation 19.3 Overview of operations 19.3.1 Concentration by evaporation 19.3.1.1 Principle of vacuum evaporation 19.3.1.2 Energy 19.3.1.3 Production of concentrated whole and skimmed milk 19.3.1.4 Production of dulce de leche 19.3.2 Whey and lactose crystallisation 19.3.3 Drying 19.3.3.1 Spray drying 19.4 Properties of dehydrated products 19.4.1 Biochemical and physicochemical properties 19.4.1.1 Water content 19.4.1.2 Water availability 19.4.1.3 Protein modifications 19.4.2 Nutritional properties 19.4.3 Process properties of dairy powder 19.4.3.1 Particle size and powder structure 19.4.3.2 Flowability–floodability 19.4.3.3 Density 19.4.3.4 Rehydration properties 19.4.3.5 Hygroscopicity 19.4.3.6 Instant powders References 20 Frozen Dairy Foods Arun Kilara and Ramesh C. Chandan 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Technology essentials 20.2.1 Classification of and trends in the frozen desserts market 20.2.2 Formulation 20.2.2.1 Concentrated sources of milk fat 20.2.2.2 Concentrated sources of serum solids 20.2.2.3 Balancing ingredients 20.2.2.4 Sweeteners 20.2.2.5 Stabilizers 20.2.2.6 Emulsifiers 20.2.3 Processing 20.2.3.1 Blending 20.2.3.2 Pasteurization 20.2.3.3 Homogenization 20.2.3.4 Aging 20.2.3.5 Flavors 20.2.3.6 Freezing 20.2.3.7 Overrun 20.2.3.8 Types of ice cream freezers 20.2.3.9 Hardening 20.2.4 Frozen yogurt 20.2.5 Packaging 20.3 Nutritional profile of ice cream 20.3.1 Contribution of milk 20.3.1.1 Milk proteins 20.3.1.2 Milk fat 20.3.1.3 Lactose 20.3.1.4 Minerals 20.3.1.5 Vitamins and some other minor constituents 20.3.2 Nutrient profile of ice cream and frozen desserts 20.3.3 Frozen dairy products from milk of species other than cow References 21 Nutritional Formulae for Infants and Young Children Séamus McSweeney, Jonathan O’Regan and Dan O’Callaghan 21.1 Introduction 21.2 History of infant formula 21.3 Classification and regulation of formulae for infants and young children 21.4 Safety and quality 21.5 Product range and formulation 21.5.1 General formulation principles 21.5.2 Milk protein-based first-age infant formulae 21.5.2.1 Energy 21.5.2.2 Protein 21.5.2.3 Lipids 21.5.2.4 Carbohydrate 21.5.2.5 Minerals 21.5.2.6 Vitamins 21.5.2.7 Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics 21.5.2.8 Other nutrients 21.5.2.9 Processing aids and food additives 21.5.3 Specialised first-age infant formulae 21.5.4 Formulae for low-birthweight and premature infants 21.5.5 Follow-on formulae 21.5.6 Growing-up milks 21.5.7 Formulae for pregnant and lactating women 21.6 Processing and manufacture of formulae for infants and young children 21.7 Packaging of formulae for infants and young children 21.8 Future developments References 22 Whey and Whey Products Sanjeev Anand, Som Nath Khanal, and Chenchaiah Marella 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Sources and types of whey 22.2.1 Acid and sweet whey 22.2.2 Whey from other species 22.3 Whey production and utilization 22.4 Major commercialized whey products 22.4.1 Whey powder 22.4.2 Whey protein concentrates 22.4.3 Whey protein isolate 22.4.4 Whey protein fractions 22.4.4.1 á-Lactalbumin 22.4.4.2 â-Lactoglobulin 22.4.4.3 Glycomacropeptide 22.4.4.4 Bovine serum albumin 22.4.4.5 Lactoferrin 22.4.4.6 Lactoperoxidase 22.4.4.7 Immunoglobulins 22.4.5 Non-protein whey products 22.4.5.1 Lactose 22.4.5.2 Milk minerals 22.4.6 Products from non-bovine whey 22.4.6.1 Whey cheeses 22.4.6.2 Other whey products 22.5 Nutritional value of whey components 22.5.1 Protein and bioactive peptides 22.5.1.1 Whey protein quality 22.5.1.2 Whey protein digestion and absorption 22.5.1.3 Biological functions of whey proteins 22.5.1.4 Antimicrobial activity of whey proteins 22.5.1.5 Therapeutic values of whey proteins 22.5.1.6 Whey proteins in specialized nutrition 22.5.2 Lactose 22.5.2.1 Whey products for lactose intolerance 22.5.3 Vitamins and minerals in whey 22.6 Future prospects for dietary applications of whey References 23 Goat Milk George Zervas and Eleni Tsiplakou 23.1 Introduction 23.2 Composition of goat milk 23.2.1 Fat 23.2.2 Fatty acids 23.2.3 Proteins 23.2.4 Whey proteins 23.2.5 Amino acids 23.2.6 Non-protein nitrogen 23.2.7 Minor proteins 23.2.8 Carbohydrates 23.2.9 Minerals and vitamins 23.3 Effects of feeding and management on goat milk composition 23.4 The contribution of goat milk to human nutrition and health 23.4.1 The effects of milk fat 23.4.2 The effects of milk proteins 23.4.3 The effects of milk bioactive peptides 23.4.3.1 Angiotensin I-converting enzyme 23.4.3.2 Nucleotides 23.4.3.3 Polyamines 23.4.3.4 Sialic acid 23.4.3.5 Taurine 23.4.3.6 Growth factors 23.4.4 The effects of milk oligosaccharides 23.4.5 The effects of milk minerals and vitamins 23.4.6 Goat milk products 23.4.6.1 Fermented milk, yogurt 23.4.6.2 Cheeses 23.4.6.3 Powder and condensed milk 23.4.6.4 Butter 23.4.6.5 Other goat milk products 23.5 Conclusions References   24 Buffalo Milk Sarfraz Ahmad 24.1 Introduction 24.1.1 Buffalo populations and breeds 24.1.2 Buffalo milk production and consumption 24.1.3 Socioeconomic importance of buffaloes 24.1.4 Buffalo milk commercial products 24.2 Major milk constituents and their nutritional importance 24.2.1 Fat 24.2.1.1 Fat globules 24.2.1.2 Triglycerides 24.2.1.3 Fatty acids 24.2.1.4 Conjugated linoleic acid 24.2.1.5 Minor fat constituents (cholesterol, phospholipids, gangliosides) 24.2.2 Proteins 24.2.2.1 Caseins 24.2.2.2 Whey proteins 24.2.2.3 Minor proteins 24.2.3 Carbohydrates 24.2.3.1 Oligosaccharides 24.2.3.2 Minor sugar fractions 24.2.4 Minerals 24.2.4.1 Major minerals 24.2.4.2 Trace elements 24.2.5 Enzymes 24.2.5.1 Lysozyme 24.2.5.2 Lactoperoxidase 24.2.5.3 Xanthine oxidase 24.2.6 Vitamins 24.2.6.1 Fat-soluble vitamins 24.2.6.2 Water-soluble vitamins 24.3 Nutritional and health benefits of buffalo milk and its products 24.3.1 Buffalo health 24.3.2 Effect of buffalo milk on particular diseases 24.3.2.1 Osteoporosis 24.3.2.2 Allergy 24.3.2.3 Dental caries 24.3.2.4 Cancer 24.3.3 Role of constituents of buffalo milk and products in human nutrition and health 24.3.3.1 Fatty acids and glycerides 24.3.3.2 Conjugated linoleic acid 24.3.3.3 Minerals 24.3.3.4 Bioactive peptides from caseins and whey proteins 24.4 Conclusions References   25 Sheep Milk Miguel Angel de la Fuente, Mercedes Ramos, Isidra Recio and Manuela Juárez 25.1 Introduction 25.2 Lipids 25.2.1 Triacylglycerides 25.2.2 Fatty acid composition 25.2.2.1 Saturated fatty acids 25.2.2.2 Unsaturated fatty acids 25.2.2.3 Trans fatty acids 25.2.2.4 Conjugated linoleic acid 25.2.3 Other minor lipid compounds 25.3 Proteins and their biological functions 25.3.1 Bioactive peptides derived from sheep milk proteins 25.3.1.1 Antihypertensive peptides 25.3.1.2 Antimicrobial peptides 25.3.1.3 Other biological activities of peptides from ovine proteins 25.4 Carbohydrates 25.5 Minerals 25.6 Vitamins 25.7 Sheep milk products References   26 Camel Milk Kenji Fukuda 26.1 Introduction 26.2 Camel milk production and utilization worldwide 26.2.1 Camel milk production 26.2.2 Utilization of Bactrian camel milk 26.2.3 Utilization of dromedary camel milk 26.2.4 Utilization of camel milk in Australia 26.3 Camel milk components and their nutritional aspects 26.3.1 Mineral salts and vitamins 26.3.2 Lipids 26.3.3 Carbohydrates 26.3.4 Proteins 26.3.4.1 Caseins 26.3.4.2 Whey proteins 26.4 Milk allergy 26.5 Health-beneficial microorganisms in camel milk and its products 26.5.1 Lactic acid bacteria 26.5.2 Yeasts References   27 Horse and Donkey Milk Elisabetta Salimei and Francesco Fantuz 27.1 Introduction 27.2 Worldwide horse and donkey distribution and milk production 27.2.1 Horse and donkey milk production for human consumption 27.3 Gross composition and physical properties of horse and donkey milk 27.4 Nitrogen fraction of horse and donkey milk 27.4.1 Caseins 27.4.2 Whey proteins 27.4.3 Non-protein nitrogen 27.5 Fat and lipid fractions in horse and donkey milk 27.6 Lactose and other carbohydrates in horse and donkey milk 27.7 Minerals and vitamins in horse and donkey milk 27.8 Bioactive compounds 27.9 Horse and donkey milk in the human diet and well-being 27.9.1 Equid milk sanitation and quality standards and controls 27.9.2 Horse and donkey milk as hypoallergenic and functional food 27.9.3 Equid milk dairy products 27.10 Conclusions References 28 Sow Milk Sung Woo Kim 28.1 Introduction 28.2 Porcine mammary gland 28.2.1 Structure and anatomy 28.2.2 Mammary gland growth 28.2.3 Maternal nutrition and mammary gland growth 28.2.4 Litter size and mammary gland growth 28.3 Porcine colostrum and milk 28.4 Dietary manipulations that affect milk production and composition 28.5 Sow milk in human nutrition research 28.6 Summary References   29 Yak Milk Ying Ma, Shenghua He, and Haimei Li 29.1 Introduction 29.2 Basic composition 29.3 Physical characteristics 29.4 Proteins 29.4.1 Nitrogen distribution 29.4.2 Protein composition 29.4.3 Minor proteins 29.4.4 Milk fat globule membrane proteins 29.4.5 Amino acids 29.4.6 Bioactive peptides derived from yak milk proteins 29.5 Lipids 29.6 Minerals 29.7 Vitamins References   30 Other Minor Species Milk (Reindeer, Caribou, Musk Ox, Llama, Alpaca, Moose, Elk, and Others) Young W. Park and George F.W. Haenlein 30.1 Introduction 30.2 General aspects of milk of minor species 30.3 Production, composition, and utilization of milk from minor dairy species 30.3.1 Reindeer 30.3.1.1 Production of reindeer milk 30.3.1.2 Nutritional composition of reindeer milk 30.3.1.3 Contribution of reindeer milk to human foods 30.3.2 Caribou 30.3.3 Musk ox 30.3.4 Llama milk 30.3.4.1 Milk yield 30.3.4.2 Milk composition 30.3.5 Alpaca 30.3.6 Moose 30.3.7 Elk 30.3.8 Mithun 30.3.9 Other minor species 30.3.9.1 Pinniped 30.3.9.2 Polar bear 30.3.9.3 Elephant References   31 Human Milk Duarte P.M. Torres and Young W. Park 31.1 Introduction 31.2 Human milk feeding and its practice 31.3 Production of human milk 31.4 Composition of human milk 31.4.1 General composition 31.4.2 Milk protein 31.4.3 Milk carbohydrates 31.4.3.1 Major carbohydrates 31.4.3.2 Human milk oligosaccharides and infant microbiota 31.4.4 Milk fat 31.4.4.1 Milk fat composition 31.4.4.2 Fatty acids of human milk in the health and cognitive development of children 31.4.5 Milk micronutrients 31.4.5.1 Iron and minerals 31.4.5.2 Vitamins 31.5 Infant formulae and alternative feeding References Index Color plate section
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