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Marsilius Of Marsilius of Padua

Defensor Pacis

€ 44.79

Taal / Language : English

Preface xvii
Structure and General Argument xix
The Basic Themes: Reason, Power, and the People`s Will xxx
Religion and Politics xlvi
Language and Translation lxvi
List of Frequent References and Abbreviations
On the General Aim of the Discussion, the Cause of That Aim, and the Division of the Book
On the First Questions in This Book, and the Distinction of the Various Meanings of the Term ``State``
On the Origin of the Civil Community
On the Final Cause of the State and of Its Civil Requirements, and the Differentiation in General of Its Parts
On the Differentiation of the Parts of the State, and the Necessity of Their Separate Existence for an End Discoverable by Man
On the Final Cause of a Certain Part of the State, the Priesthood, Shown from the Immediate Teaching or Revelation of God, but Incapable of Being Proved by Human Reason
On the Other Kinds of Causes of the Separate Existence of the Parts of the State, and the Division of Each Kind in Two Ways Relevant to Our Purpose
On the Genera of Polities or Regimes, the Temperate and the Diseased, and the Division of Their Species
On the Methods of Establishing a Kingly Monarchy, and Which Method Is the More Perfect; Also on the Methods of Establishing the Other Kinds of Regime or Polity, Both Temperate and Diseased
On the Distinction of the Meanings of the Term ``Law,`` and on the Meaning Which is Most Proper and Intended by Us
On the Necessity for Making Laws (Taken in Their Most Proper Sense); and That No Ruler, However Virtuous or Just, Should Rule Without Laws
On the Demonstrable Efficient Cause of Human Laws, and Also on That Cause Which Cannot be Proved by Demonstration: Which is to Inquire Into the Legislator. Whence It Appears Also That Whatever Else Is Established by Election Derives Its Authority from Election Alone Apart from Any Other Confirmation
On Some Objections to the Statements Made in the Preceding Chapter, and Their Refutation, Together with a Fuller Exposition of the Proposition
On the Qualities or Dispositions of the Perfect Ruler, That It May Be Known What Kind of Person Should be Named to the Rulership. Whence There Appears Also the Appropriate Matter or Subject of Human Laws
On the Efficient Cause of the Best Method of Establishing the Government; from Which There Also Appears the Efficient Cause of the Other Parts of the State
Whether It Is More Expedient for the Polity to Appoint Each Monarch Individually by a New Election, or to Elect One Monarch Alone with All His Posterity, Which Is Usually Called Hereditary Succession
On the Numerial Unity of the Supreme Government of the City or State, and the Necessity for That Unity; Whence There Appears Also the Numerical Unity of the City or State Itself, and of Each of Its Primary Parts or Offices
On the Correction of the Ruler, and for What Cause, How, and by Whom He Must be Punished When He Transgresses the Law
On the Efficient Causes of the Tranquillity and Intranquillity of the City or State, and on That Singular Cause Which Disturbs States in an Unusual Way; and on the Connection Between the First Discourse and the Second
On Three Impediments or Modes of Opposition to the Truths Contained in This Discourse; the Aim of the Discussion; and the Method of Procedure
On the Distinction of the Meanings of the Words or Terms Which Compose the Questions to Be Decided
On the Canonic Statements and Other Arguments Which Seem to Prove That Coercive Rulership Belongs to Bishops or Priests as Such, Even Without the Grant of the Human Legislator, and That the Supreme of All Such Rulerships Belongs to the Roman Bishop or Pope
On the Canonic Scriptures, the Commands, Counsels, and Examples of Christ and of the Saints and Approved Doctors Who Expounded the Evangelic Law, Whereby It Is Clearly Demonstrated That the Roman or Any Other Bishop or Priest, or Clergyman, Can by Virtue of the Words of Scripture Claim or Ascribe to Himself No Coercive Rulership or Contentious Jurisdiction, Let Alone the Supreme Jurisdiction Over Any Clergyman or Layman; and That, by Christ`s Counsel and Example, They Ought to Refuse Such Rulership, Especially in Communities of the Faithful, If It Is Offered to Them or Bestowed on Them by Someone Having the Authority to Do So; and Again, That All Bishops, and Generally All Persons Now Called Clergymen, Must Be Subject to the Coercive Judgment or Rulership of Him Who Governs by the Authority of the Human Legislator, Especially Where This Legislator Is Christian
On the Canonic Utterances of the Apostles and the Expositions of the Saints and Doctors, Which Clearly Prove the Same As in the Preceding Chapter
On the Authority of the Priestly Keys, and What Kind of Power the Priest or Bishop Has in Excommunication
Summary of the Statements Made in the Preceding Chapter, and Their Clarification and Confirmation
On the Division of Human Acts, and How They Are Related to Human Law and the Judge of This World
On the Relation of Human Acts to Divine Law and to the Judge of the Other World, Namely Christ; and Also How These Acts Are Related to the Teacher of the Same Law, the Bishop or Priest, in This World
On the Coercive Judge of Heretics, Namely to Whom It Pertains to Judge Heretics in This World, to Correct Them, to Inflict on Them Penalties in Person and in Property, and to Exact and Dispose of These Penalties
On Some Signs, Testimonies, and Examples from Both Canonic and Human Writings, Which Show the Truth of the Conclusions Reached in Chapters IV, V, VIII, IX, and X of This Discourse with Regard to the Status of Bishops and of Priests Generally. And Why Christ Separated Their Status, That of Poverty, from the Status of Rulers
On the Differentiation of the Meanings of Certain Terms Necessary for the Determination of Questions Concerning the Status of Supreme Poverty
On the Status of Supreme Poverty, Which Is Usually Called Evangelical Perfection; and That This Status Was Held by Christ and His Apostles
On Some Objections to the Conclusions of the Preceding Chapter, the Refutation of These Objections, and Confirmation of the Statements Made in That Chapter
On the Differentiation of the Priestly Office According to Its Essential and Accidental, Separable and Inseparable Authority; and That No Priest Is Inferior to a Bishop in Essential, but Only in Accidental Dignity
On the Equality of the Apostles in Each Office or Dignity Bestowed on Them Immediately by Christ. Whence Is Proved What Was Said in the Preceding Chapter Concerning the Equality of All Their Successors; and How All the Bishops Are Alike Successors of Every Apostle
On the Authority to Appoint the Bishops and Other Ministers and Curates of the Church to Each of Their Dignities or Offices, the Seprable and the Inseparable
On the Origin and First Status of the Christian Church, and Whence the Roman Bishop and Church Assumed the Above-Mentioned Authority and a Certain Primacy Over the Other Bishops and Churches
On Certain Preliminary Considerations Needed for the Determination of the Afore-Mentioned Authority and Primacy: What Statements or Writings It Is Necessary to Believe in and to Acknowledge as True for the Sake of Eternal Salvation
To Whom Belongs or Has Belonged the Authority to Define or Determine Doubtful Sentences of the Holy Scripture
To Whom Belongs or Has Hitherto Belonged the Coercive Authority to Assemble a General Council of Priests, Bishops, and Other Believers; and to Whom Belongs the Authority in the Council to Make Decrees Disobedience to Which Would Render Believers Liable to Punishment or Guilt for the Status of the Present or the Future World; and Again, to Whom Belongs the Authority in This World to Punish Any Transgressor of the Decrees or Decisions of the General Council. Furthermore, That No Bishop or Priest Can Excommunicate Any Ruler or Place Any People Under an Interdict, or Bestow on Anyone Ecclesiastic Temporal Benefices or Tithes or Licenses to Teach, or Any Civil Offices, Except by the Decision and Grant of the General Council of the Human Legislator or Both
In What Sense the Roman Bishop and His Church Are the Head and Leader of the Others; and by What Authority This Headship Belongs to Them
On the Modes of Plenitude of Power, and the Manner and Order of Their Assumption by the Roman Bishop, Together with a General Statement of How He Has Used and Still Uses Them
How in Particular the Roman Bishop Has Used His Assumed Primacy and Plenitude of Power Within the Limits of the Church or the Priestly Household
How in Particular the Roman Bishop Has Used His Assumed Primacy and Plenitude of Power Outside the Limits of the Church, with Respect to Laymen or Civil Affairs
How the Roman Bishop Has Used This Plenary Power and Primacy Still More Particularly with Regard to the Roman Ruler and Empire
On Some Objections to the Conclusions of Chapter XV of This Discourse and of the Chapters Following
Replies to the Foregoing Objections
Refutation of the Objections Which Were Adduced from Scripture in Chapter III of This Discourse for the Purpose of Showing That Coercive Jurisdiction Belongs to the Bishops, and That the Supreme Coercive Jurisdiction Belongs to the Roman Bishop As Such
Refutation of the Rational Arguments Presented in Chapter III of This Discourse for the Same Purpose; and Also Concerning the Transfer of the Roman Empire and of Any Other Government; How It Should and Can Be Done According to Right Reason
Review of the Principal Aims and Conclusions of Discourses I and II, and Their Connection with What Is to Follow
In Which Are Explicitly Inferred Certain Conclusions Which Follow Necessarily from the Results Set Forth in the First Two Discourses. By Heeding These Conclusions, Rulers and Subjects Can More Easily Attain the End Aimed at by This Book
On the Title of This Book
Appendix I. On Marsilius` Misinterpretations of Some Texts of Aristotle
Appendix II. Natural Desire, the Unity of the Intellect, and Political Averroism
Afterword 443(12)
Bibliography, 1950-2000 455(4)
Index 459
Extra informatie: 
Paperback / softback
550 pagina's
Januari 2001
650 gram
206 x 138 x 34 mm

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