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Lai, Loi Lei

Distributed Generation

Induction and Permanent Magnet Generators

€ 141.95

Distributed power generation is a technology that could help to enable efficient, renewable energy production both in the developed and developing world. It includes all use of small electric power generators, whether located on the utility system, at the site of a utility customer, or at an isolated site not connected to the power grid.


Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:
Foreword xi
Preface xiii
Acknowledgements xvii
About the Authors xix
1 Distributed Generation 1
1.1 Introduction
1
1.2 Reasons for DG
1
1.3 Technical Impacts of DG
3
1.3.1 DG Technologies
3
1.3.2 Thermal Issues
5
1.3.3 Voltage Profile Issues
5
1.3.4 Fault-Level Contributions
7
1.3.5 Harmonics and Interactions with Loads
7
1.3.6 Interactions Between Generating Units
8
1.3.7 Protection Issues
8
1.4 Economic Impact of DG
9
1.5 Barriers to DG Development
10
1.6 Renewable Sources of Energy
11
1.7 Renewable Energy Economics
12
1.8 Interconnection
15
1.8.1 Interconnection Standardization
15
1.8.2 Rate Design
15
1.9 Recommendations and Guidelines for DG Planning
16
1.10 Summary
18
References
19
2 Generators 21
2.1 Introduction
21
2.2 Synchronous Generator
21
2.2.1 Permanent Magnet Materials
22
2.2.2 Permanent Magnet Generator
23
2.3 Induction Generator
28
2.3.1 Three-Phase IGs and SEIGs
29
2.3.2 Single-Phase IGs and SEIGs
30
2.4 Doubly Fed Induction Generator
31
2.4.1 Operation
31
2.4.2 Recent Work
33
2.5 Summary
34
References
34
3 Three-Phase IG Operating on a Single-Phase Power System 41
3.1 Introduction
41
3.2 Phase Balancing using Passive Circuit Elements
41
3.2.1 Analysis of IG with Phase Converters
41
3.2.2 Phase Balancing Schemes
43
3.2.3 Case Study
45
3.2.4 System Power Factor
47
3.2.5 Power and Efficiency
49
3.2.6 Operation with Fixed Phase Converters
50
3.2.7 Summary
51
3.3 Phase Balancing using the Smith Connection
52
3.3.1 Three-Phase IG with the Smith Connection
52
3.3.2 Performance Analysis
54
3.3.3 Balanced Operation
55
3.3.4 Case Study
58
3.3.5 Effect of Phase Balancing Capacitances
61
3.3.6 Dual-Mode Operation
65
3.3.7 Summary
66
3.4 Microcontroller-Based Multi-Mode Control of SMIG
67
3.4.1 Phase Voltage Consideration
67
3.4.2 Control System
67
3.4.3 Practical Implementation
71
3.4.4 Experimental Results
72
3.4.5 Summary
75
3.5 Phase Balancing using a Line Current Injection Method
77
3.5.1 Circuit Connection and Operating Principle
77
3.5.2 Performance Analysis
78
3.5.3 Balanced Operation
80
3.5.4 Case Study
82
3.5.5 Summary
91
References
91
4 Finite Element Analysis of Grid-Connected IG with the Steinmetz Connection 93
4.1 Introduction
93
4.2 Steinmetz Connection and Symmetrical Components Analysis
94
4.3 Machine Model
95
4.4 Finite Element Analysis
96
4.4.1 Basic Field Equations
96
4.4.2 Stator Circuit Equations
97
4.4.3 Stator EMFs
99
4.4.4 Rotor Circuit Model
99
4.4.5 Comments on the Proposed Method
102
4.5 Computational Aspects
103
4.6 Case Study
104
4.7 Summary
109
References
110
5 SEIGs for Autonomous Power Systems 111
5.1 Introduction
111
5.2 Three-Phase SEIG with the Steinmetz Connection
111
5.2.1 Circuit Connection and Analysis
111
5.2.2 Solution Technique
114
5.2.3 Capacitance Requirement
115
5.2.4 Computed and Experimental Results
117
5.2.5 Capacitance Requirement on Load
121
5.2.6 Summary
123
5.3 SEIG with Asymmetrically Connected Impedances and Excitation Capacitances
123
5.3.1 Circuit Model
124
5.3.2 Performance Analysis
124
5.3.3 Computed and Experimental Results
125
5.3.4 Modified Steinmetz Connection
126
5.3.5 Simplified Steinmetz Connection
133
5.3.6 Summary
135
5.4 Self-regulated SEIG for Single-Phase Loads
136
5.4.1 Circuit Connection and Analysis
136
5.4.2 Effect of Series Compensation Capacitance
138
5.4.3 Experimental Results and Discussion
143
5.4.4 Effect of Load Power Factor
147
5.4.5 Summary
149
5.5 SEIG with the Smith Connection
150
5.5.1 Circuit Connection and Operating Principle
150
5.5.2 Performance Analysis
151
5.5.3 Balanced Operation
152
5.5.4 Results and Discussion
153
5.5.5 Summary
159
References
159
6 Voltage and Frequency Control of SEIG with Slip-Ring Rotor 161
6.1 Introduction
161
6.2 Performance Analysis of SESRIG
162
6.3 Frequency and Voltage Control
165
6.4 Control with Variable Stator Load
166
6.5 Practical Implementation
168
6.5.1 Chopper-Controlled Rotor External Resistance
168
6.5.2 Closed-Loop Control
169
6.5.3 Tuning of PI Controller
170
6.5.4 Dynamic Response
170
6.6 Summary
173
References
173
7 PMSGs For Autonomous Power Systems 175
7.1 Introduction
175
7.2 Principle and Construction of PMSG with Inset Rotor
175
7.3 Analysis for Unity-Power-Factor Loads
177
7.3.1 Analysis Using the Two-Axis Model
177
7.3.2 Design Considerations
180
7.3.3 Computed Results
182
7.3.4 Experimental Results
183
7.3.5 Summary
184
7.4 A Comprehensive Analysis
185
7.4.1 Basic Equations and Analysis
185
7.4.2 Conditions for Zero Voltage Regulation
188
7.4.3 Extremum Points in the Load Characteristic
190
7.4.4 Power Load Angle Relationship
191
7.4.5 The Saturated Two-Axis Model
192
7.4.6 Summary
194
7.5 Computation of Synchronous Reactances
194
7.5.1 Analysis Based on FEM
194
7.5.2 Computation of Xd and Xq
196
7.5.3 Computed Results
197
7.5.4 Summary
201
7.6 Analysis using Time-Stepping 2-D FEM
201
7.6.1 Machine Model and Assumptions
201
7.6.2 Coupled Circuit and Field Analysis
202
7.6.3 Magnetic Saturation Consideration
205
7.6.4 Computed Results
207
7.6.5 Experimental Verification
211
7.6.6 Summary
212
References
213
8 Conclusions 215
8.1 Accomplishments of the Book
215
8.2 Future Work
217
Reference
217
Appendix A Analysis for IG and SEIG 219
A.1 Symmetrical Components Equations for IG
219
A.2 Positive-Sequence and Negative-Sequence Circuits of IG
220
A.3 Vp and Vn for IG with Dual-Phase Converters
221
A.4 Derivation of Angular Relationship
223
A.5 Input Impedance of SEIG with the Steinmeti Connection
224
References
225
Appendix B The Method of Hooke and Jeeves 227
Reference
228
Appendix C A Note on the Finite Element Method [1] 229
C.1 Energy Functional and Discretization
229
C.2 Shape Functions
230
C.3 Functional Minimization and Global Assembly
233
Reference
234
Appendix D Technical Data of Experimental Machines 235
D.1 Machine IG1
235
D.2 Machine IG2
236
D.3 Prototype PMSG with Inset Rotor
236
Index 239
Extra informatie: 
Hardback
262 pagina's
Januari 2007
608 gram
254 x 178 x 19 mm
Wiley-Blackwell us

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