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Klöpffer, Walter

Atmospheric Degradation of Organic Substances

Data for Persistence and Long - range Transport Potential

€ 284.95

This compilation on the degradation of 1,100 commercially important chemical products is the first publication to make this knowledge publicly accessible in one book. The data


Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:
Foreword.

Preface.

Chapter 1 Significance of Photo degradation in Environmental Risk Assessment.

1 Introduction.

2 Persistence and Long range Transport Potential in Chemicals Regulation.

3 Multimedia Models as Tools to Estimate Persistence and Long range Transport Potential.

4 Data Requirements for Multimedia Models.

5 Estimation of the Rate Constant of Organic Substances with Hydroxyl Radicals.

6 Research Requirements for Photo degradation of Semi volatile Substances.

7 Conclusions.

References.

Chapter 2 Abiotic Degradation in the Atmosphere.

1 Introduction.

2 Photo degradation in the Homogenous Gas Phase of the Troposphere.

2.1 Indirect Photochemical Reactions.

2.1.1 The Reaction with OH Radicals.

2.1.1.1 Sources and Sinks of the OH Radical.

2.1.1.2 Reactions of OH with Organic Compounds.

2.1.2 The Reaction with NO<sub>3</sub> Radicals.

2.1.2.1 Sources and Sinks of the NO<sub>3</sub> Radical.

2.1.2.2 Reactions of NO<sub>3</sub> with Organic Compounds.

2.1.3 The Reaction with Ozone.

2.1.3.1 Sources and Sinks of O<sub>3</sub> in the Troposphere.

2.1.3.2 Reactions of O3 with Organic Compounds.

2.2 Direct Photochemical Reactions.

2.2.1 Quantum Efficiency.

2.2.2 Examples of Photochemical Reactions in the Gas Phase.

3 Heterogeneous Degradation.

3.1 Degradation on Solid Surfaces.

3.1.1 Introduction.

3.1.2 Degradation on Fly Ash and Soot.

3.1.3 Degradation on Artificial Aerosols.

3.2 Degradation in Droplets.

3.2.1 Direct Photochemical Transformation.

3.2.2 Reactive Trace Compounds in Cloud, Fog and Rainwater.

3.2.3 Reactions of Organic Molecules.

3.2.4 Summary.

4 Experimental.

4.1 Indirect Photochemical Degradation.

4.1.1 Bimolecular Reaction with OH.

4.1.1.1 Direct Methods for Measuring k<sub>OH</sub>.

4.1.1.2 Indirect Methods for the Measurement of k<sub>OH</sub>.

4.1.2 Bimolecular Reaction with NO<sub>3</sub>.

4.1.2.1 Introduction.

4.1.2.2 Absolute Measurement.

4.1.2.3 Relative Measurements.

4.1.3 Bimolecular Reaction with Ozone.

4.2 Direct Photo transformation.

4.2.1 Determination of the Quantum Efficiency in the Gas Phase.

4.2.1.1 Gas Cuvette and Monochromatic Radiation.

4.2.1.2 Smog chamber Method.

4.2.2 Outlook.

4.3 Degradation in the Adsorbed State.

4.3.1 Introduction.

4.3.2 Aerosol Chambers.

4.3.3 Alternative Measurements of k<sub>OH,ads</sub>.

5 Additional Information Necessary for Calculating Lifetimes.

5.1 Atmospheric Lifetimes.

5.2 Indirect Photochemical Degradation.

5.2.1 Average OH Concentration in the Troposphere.

5.2.2 Average NO<sub>3</sub> Concentration in the Troposphere.

5.2.3 Average O<sub>3</sub> Concentration in the Troposphere.

5.3 Direct Photochemical Degradation.

5.3.1 Introduction.

5.3.2 Absorption Spectrum.

5.3.3 Spectral Photon Irradiance.

5.3.4 Final Comments on Direct and Indirect Photochemical Transformation.

References.

Chapter 3 Table of Reaction Rate Constants of Photo Degradation Processes.

1 Content of the Table.

2 Explanation of the Column Headings.

3 Content of the Footnotes.

4 Completeness and Accuracy.

5 Atmospheric Half lives.

6 Selection of Substances.

7 Quality Index (QI).

8 Temperature Dependence of the Rate Constant.

9 Pressure Dependence of the Rate Constant.

10 Direct Photolysis.

Table: Reaction Rate Constants and Quantum Efficiencies for Atmospheric Photo degradation of Chemicals.

Footnotes to the Table.

References to the Table.

Appendix: CAS Register.

Subject Index.
Extra informatie: 
Hardback
258 pagina's
Januari 2007
635 gram
241 x 184 x 19 mm
Wiley VCH de

Levertijd: 5 tot 11 werkdagen