Through a series of multidisciplinary readings, Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions contextualizes environmental ethics within the history of Western intellectual tradition and traces the development of theory since the 1970s.
Part II. What is the Proper Suject-Matter of Moral Philosophy? A Brief Overview of Environmental Ethics: David Keller.
Part III. Why Study Environmental Ethics?.
Part IV. WHAT IS ANTHROPOCENTRISM?.
2. Humans as Moral Ends: Saint Thomas Aquinas from Summa Contra Gentiles.
3. The Mastery of Nature: Francis Bacon from The Great Instauration.
4. Nonhumans as Machines: Rene Descartes from Discourse on the Method.
5. The Amoral Status of Nature: John Stuart Mill from `Nature`.
6. Nature as Economic Resource: John Locke from `Of Property`.
7. Indirect Duties to Nonhumans: Immanuel Kant from Lectures on Ethics.
8. Mechanistic Metaphysics: Isaac Newton from Opticks.
9. In Defense of Anthropocentrism: Wilfred Beckerman and Joanna Pasek from Justice, Posterity, and the Environment.
Part V. WHAT IS NONANTHROPOCENTRISM?.
11. Walking: Henry David Thoreau from Excursions.
12. The Wild Parks and Forest Reservations of the West: John Muir from Our National Parks and The Yosemite.
13. Is There a Need for a New, an Environmental, Ethic?: Richard Routley from Proceedings of teh XVth World Congress of Philosophy.
14. Attitudes to Nature: John Passmore from Nature and Conduct.
15. Should Trees Have Standing?: Christopher D. Stone from the Southern California Law Review Vol. 45.
16. The Varieties of Intrinsic Value: John O`Neill from The Monist Vol. 75.
17. Value in Nature and the Nature of Value: Holmes Rolston.
18. The End of Anthropocentrism?: Mary Midgley from Philosophy and the Natural Environment.
19. Is the Crown of Creation a Dunce Cap?: Chip Ward.
Part VI. WHAT IS THE SCOPE OF MORAL CONSIDERABILITY?.
21. All Animals are Equal: Peter Singer from Philosophical Exchange vol. 1.
22. The Case for Animal Rights: Tom Reagan from In Defense of Animals and `Animal Rights, Human Wrongs`.
23. On Being Morally Considerable: Kenneth E. Goodpaster from The Journal of Philosophy.
24. The Ethics of Respect for Nature: Paul W. Taylor from Environmental Ethics vol. 3.
25. The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement: Arne Naess from Inquiry vol. 16.
26. The Heart of Deep Ecology: Tom McLaughlin from Deep Ecology for the Twenty-First Century.
27. The Deep Ecology Movement: Arne Naess from Philisophical Inquiry vol. VIII.
28. Transpersonal Ecology as a Distinctive Approach to Ecophilosophy: Warwick Fox from Toward a Transpersonal Ecology.
29. The Land Ethic: Aldo Leopold from A Sand County Almanac.
30. Conceptual Foundations of the Land Ethic: J. Baird Callicott from In Defense of the Land Ethic.
31. Gaia As Seen Through the Atmosphere: James Lovelock from Atmospheric Environment vol. 6.
32. Kantians and Utilitarians and the Moral Status of Nonhuman Life: James P. Sterba from The Triumph of Practice Over Theory in Ethics.
33. Persons in Nature: Frederick Ferré from Ethics in teh Environment vol. 1.
34. General Ethics: Fox from Developing a General Ethics: An Introduction to the Theory of Responsive Cohesion Part VII. WHAT ARE PROMINENT ALTERNATIVES TO GROUNDING ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS IN MORAL EXTENSIONISM?.
36. What is Social Ecology?: Murray Bookchin from Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology.
37. Socialism and Ecology: James O`Connor from Capitalism, Nature, Socialism vol. 2.
38. The Power and Promise of Ecological Feminism: Karen J. Warren from Environmental Ethics vol. 12.
39. Ecofeminism and Feminist Theory: Carolyn Merchant from Reweaving the World: The Emergence of Ecofeminism and Feminism and the Philosophy of Nature: Carolyn Merchant from The Death of Nature.
40. Nature, Self, and Gender: A Critique of Rationalism: Val Plumwood from Hypatia vol. 6.
41. Environmental Virtue Ethics: Sandler from Environmental Virtue Ethics.
42. Continental Environmental Ethics: Vogel, `Nature as Origin and Difference`.
43. Beyond Intrinsic Value: Pragmatism in Environmental Ethics: Anthony Weston from Environmental Ethics vol. 7.
44. The Case For a Practical Pluralism: Andrew Light from Environmental Ethics.
45. Earth First!: David Foreman The Progressive vol. 45.
46. The Ethics of Ecological Sabotage: An Exchange from Environmental vol. 4.
a. `Ecological Sabotage: Pranks or Terrorism?`: Hargrove.
b. `Earth First! and the Monkey Wrench Gang`: Edward Abbey.
c. `More on Earth First! and The Monkey Wrench Gang`: David Foreman.
d. Response: Hargrove.
Part VIII. WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS BETWEEN NATURE, CULTURE, SUBJECTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS?.
48. Subjectivist Environmental Ethics: Elliot from Meta-Ethics and Environmental Ethics.
49. How to Construe Nature: Roger J. H. King from Between the Species.
50. The Trouble with Wilderness: William Cronon.
51. Ecological Realism: Shepard from `Virtually Hunting Reality in the Forests of Simulacra`.
52. Environmental Ethics and the Philosophy of Technology: Rothenberg from Hand`s End.
Part IX. WHAT IS THE USE OF ECOLOGICAL SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS?.
54. Ecology-A Subversive Subject: Paul B. Sears.
55. What is Conservation Biology?: Michael E. Soulé from BioScience vol. 35.
56. Environmental Ethics and Ecological Science: Mark Sagoff from Environmental Ethics and International Policy.
57. The Metaphysical Implications of Ecology: J. Baird Callicott from Environmental Ethics vol. 7.
58. The Ends of the World as We Know Them: Jared Diamond from The New York Times.
Part X. WHAT ARE SOME OF THE ETHICAL DIMENSIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC POLICY?.
59. An Essay on the Principle of Population: Thomas Malthus.
60. The Tragedy of the Commons: Garrett Hardin from Science vol. 162 and Ethical Implications of Carrying Capacity: Garrett Hardin from Managing the Commons and The Immorality of Being Softhearted: Garrett Hardin from The Relevant Scientist.
61. Impact of Population Growth: Paul R. Ehrlich and John P. Holdren from Science vol. 171.
62. How Poverty Breeds Overpopulation: Barry Commoner from Ramparts vol. 13.
63. More People, Greater Wealth, More Resources, Healthier Environment: Julian L. Simon from Economic Affairs.
64. Population: Delusion and Reality: Amartya Sen from The New York Review of Books.
65. A Special Moment in History: The Future of Population: Bill McKibben from The Atlantic Monthly.
66. Nature as the Measure for a Sustainable Agriculture: Wes Jackson from Ecology, Economics, Ethics- The Broken Circle.
67. Putting Food Production in Context: Toward a Postmechanistic Agricultural Ethic: David R. Keller and E. Charles Brummer from BioScience vol. 52.
68. Environmental Justice for All: Robert D. Bullard from Unequal Protection.
69. Just Garbage: Peter S. Wenz from Faces of Environmental Racism.
70. A Declaration of Sustainability: Paul Hawken from the UTNE Reader.
71. Steady-State Economy: Herman E. Daly from Valuing the Earth.
72. The Triple-Bottom Line: John Elkington from Cannibals with Forks: The Triple Bottom Line of the 21st Century Business.
73. The Ignorance Argument: Bryan Norton from Economics, Ethics, and Environmental Policy.
74. Environmental Justice and Intergenerational Debt: Clark Wolf from Blackwell Companion to Environmental Philosophy.
75. The Environmental Limits to Globalization: David Ehrenfeld from Conservation Biology vol. 19.
Part XI. WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS?.
76. The Future of Environmental Ethics: Holmes Rolston III.
Part XII. BIBLIOGRAPHY.
Part XIII. INDEX.