This newly updated edition covers a wide range of topics relevant to fungal biology, appealing to academia and industry
Fungi are extremely important microorganisms in relation to human and animal wellbeing, the environment, and in industry.
Taal / Language : English
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS:
Dr. Khaled H. Abu-Elteen, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Dr. Catherine Bachewich, Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, QC, Canada H4P 2R2.
Dr. Johan Baars, Plant Research International, Droevendaalsesteeg 1 6708PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Dr. Virginia Bugeja, School of Natural Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL109AB, England.
Prof. David Coleman, Microbiology Research Laboratory, Dublin Dental Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland
Dr. Brendan Curran. School of Biological Science, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, England.
Dr. Fiona Doohan, Department of Plant Pathology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
Prof. Sean Doyle, Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Co. Kildare, Ireland.
Dr. David Fitzpatrick, Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Co. Kildare, Ireland.
Dr. Mawieh Hamad, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Dr. Karina A. Horgan, Alltech Biotechnology Centre, Summerhill Road, Dunboyne, Co. Meath, Ireland.
Dr. Kevin Kavanagh, Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Co. Kildare, Ireland.
Dr. Mohammad G. Mohammad, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Dr. Gary Moran, Microbiology Research Laboratory, Dublin Dental Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.
Dr. Richard A. Murphy, Alltech Biotechnology Centre, Summerhill Road, Dunboyne, Co. Meath, Ireland.
Dr. Richard O Hanlon, Department of Agriculture, Food and Marine, Backweston, Celbridge, Co. Kildare, Ireland.
Dr. Rebecca Owens, Department of Biology, Maynooth University, Co. Kildare, Ireland
Dr. Derek Sullivan, Microbiology Research Unit, Dublin Dental School & Hospital, Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.
Dr. Graeme M. Walker, Biotechnology & Forensic Sciences, School of Contemporary Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee, Kydd Building Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland.
Dr. Nia A. White, Biotechnology & Forensic Sciences, School of Contemporary Sciences, University of Abertay Dundee, Kydd Building Dundee DD1 1HG, Scotland.
Dr. Malcolm Whiteway, Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, 6100 Royalmount Avenue, Montreal, QC, Canada H4P 2R2.
CONTENTS OF THIRD EDITION
1. INTRODUCTION TO FUNGAL PHYSIOLOGY
Graeme M. Walker & Nia A. White
Fungi are extremely important microorganisms in relation to human and animal wellbeing, the environment and in industry. This Chapter will cover the nutrition, metabolism, growth, reproduction and death of yeast and fungal cells all topics that pertain to Fungal Physiology. The topics in question will be revised and updated from the second edition of the textbook. Some aspects will be expanded upon to reflect more recent developments in areas such as fungal cell death, modelling of fungal growth and modern methods for studying fungal physiology. The coverage will be at an introductory level but will include up-to-date references for further reading.
1.1 Introduction 1.2. Morphology of yeasts and fungi 1.4. Fungal nutrition and cellular biosyntheses 1.5. Fungal metabolism 1.6 Fungal growth and reproduction 1.7 Conclusions 1.8 Further Reading 1.9 Revision Questions 2. FUNGAL GENETICS (To be updated and revised) Malcolm Whiteway & Catherine Bachewich 2.1 General 2.2 Life cycles 2.3 Sexual analysis: regulation of mating 2.4 Unique Characteristics of filamentous fungi that are advantageous for genetic analysis 2.5. Genetics as a tool 2.6 Conclusion 2.7 Further reading 2.8 Revision Questions. 3. FUNGAL GENOMICS (To be updated and revised) David Fitzpatrick and Edgar Medina 3.0 Introduction 3.1 Genome sequencing 3.2 Bioinformatics tools 3.3 Comparative Genomics 3.4 Genomics and the Fungal tree of life 3.5 Online Fungal Genomic Resources 3.6 Conclusion 3.7 Further Reading 3.8 Revision questions 4. Fungal Genetics : A post-genomic perspective. To be updated and revised Brendan Curran & Virginia Bugeja 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Genomics 4.3 Transcriptomics and Proteomics 4.4 Proteomics 4.5 Systems Biology 4.6 Conclusion. 4.7 Further Reading. 4.8 Revision Questions 5. FUNGAL FERMENTATION SYSTEMS AND PRODUCTS - To be updated and revised Kevin Kavanagh 5.0 Introduction 5.1 Fungal Fermentation Systems 5.2 Fungal fermentation products 5.3 Conclusion 5.4 Further Reading 5.5 Revision Questions 6 FUNGI AS FOOD Johan Baars New Chapter in third edition The chapter will describe the main species of basidiomycetes that are cultivated for food on a commercial scale; Oyster mushroom ( Pleurotus ostreatus ), shiitake ( Lentinula edodes ), button mushroom/champignon de Paris ( Agaricus bisporus ), wood ear ( Auricularia auricula ), rice straw mushroom ( Volvariella volvacea ) and winter mushroom ( Flammulina velutipes ). For each of the species, the method of commercial cultivation will briefly be discussed. Next to this a section will be attributed to fungi collected in nature (chanterelle, morels, truffles). Next to this, nutritional value of the cultivated mushrooms will be discussed. This will mainly focus on energy content, protein content (and if possible protein quality from a nutritional point of view), the content of the soluble carbohydrates, fiber content and composition. Next to this mushrooms are known for their contents of vitamin B. The last few year there is also a lot of attention for the ergosterol/vitamin D2 content. Finally, in this section attention will be paid to mineral content (for instance, basidiomycete fungi are known to accumulate cadmium etc.). The last decade there is an increased interest in medicinal properties of mushrooms. In the last section a review will be given of potential medicinal aspects of the main cultivated mushrooms. In this review also fungi that are usually not eaten for food, but mainly for medicinal purposes will be discussed. 7. ANTIBIOTIC AND CHEMICAL COMMODITIES FROM FUNGI- to be update and revised. Karina A. Horgan & Richard A. Murphy Will include discussion of problem of antibiotic resistance. 7.0 Introduction to Pharmaceutical and Chemical Commodities 7.1 Fungal Metabolism 7.2 Antibiotic Production 7.3 Pharmacologically Active Compounds 7.4 Chemical Commodities 7.5 Yeast Extracts 7.6 Enriched Yeast 7.7 Conclusions 7.8 Further Reading 7.9 Revision Questions 8. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL USE OF FUNGAL ENZYMES- To be update and revised. Shauna M. McKelvey and Richard Murphy 8.0. Introduction 8.1 Introduction to Enzymes 8.2 Enzymes in Industry 8.3 Current Enzyme Applications 8.4 Future Direction of Industrial enzymes 8.5 Specific Enzymes 8.6 Enzyme production strategies 8.7 Conclusions 8.8 Further Reading 8.9 Revision questions 9. The biotechnological exploitation of heterologous protein production in fungi - To be update and revised. Brendan Curran & Virginia Bugeja. 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Heterologous protein expression in fungi 9.3 Case Study: Hepatitis B vaccine A billion dollar heterologous protein from yeast. 9.4 Further biotechnological applications of expression technology. 9.5 Conclusion. 9.6 Further Reading 9.7 Revision questions 10. FUNGAL PROTEOMICS Sean Doyle & Rebecca Owens The term proteomics is used to describe the techniques used to identify the total protein content of a cell or organism. In addition, it can be further defined in terms of either the study of protein modifications or protein-protein interactions. Fungal proteomics, that is the study of the proteome of fungi, has emerged as an important area whereby modern proteomic techniques allow rapid identification of fungal proteins of biomedical or biotechnological importance. This chapter will describe methods used for protein extraction and isolation, subcellular fractionation and electrophoretic techniques used for protein purification prior to identification by protein mass spectrometry. In particular, recent developments in label-free quantitative proteomics will be explained and discussed. Finally, selected examples of the uses of proteomics in the study of fungal virulence and commercial potential. 1. Introduction. Fungi as black boxes . Fungi as reservoirs of valuable protein products. 2. Protein isolation and purification. Cell lysis strategies. Chromatographic purification. 3. Electrophoretic techniques. SDS-PAGE. IEF. 2D-PAGE. 4. Protein mass spectrometry Protein fragmentation. MALDI-ToF. LC-MS. 5. Shotgun and Quantitative proteomics. 6. Uses of proteomics Studying fungal virulence. Fungal secretome to identify enzymes of commercial importance. Assignment of function to hypothetical proteins or proteins of unknown function derived from fungi. Applications of proteomics in food biotechnology. 7. Conclusions Further Reading Revision questions 11. FUNGAL DISEASES OF HUMANS - To be updated and revised with new material on novel diagnostic methods. Derek Sullivan, Gary Moran & David Coleman 11.0 Introduction to Human Fungal Infections 11.1 Superficial Mycoses 11.2 Opportunistic Mycoses 11.3 Endemic Systemic Mycoses 11.4 Mycotoxicoses 11.5 Concluding Remarks 11.6 Further Reading 11.7 Revision Questions 12. IMMUNITY TO HUMAN FUNGAL INFECTIONS Mawieh Hamad,Mohammad G. Mohammad, and Khaled H. Abu-Elteen. New Chapter in Third edition 12.0 Introduction
Innate Immunity to human fungal infections
1.1 Physiological and biochemical barriers 1.2 Antifungal peptides and other soluble mediators 1.3 Recognition of fungal pathogens 1.3.1 PAMPs and PRRS 1.3.2 Phagocytosis and the oxidative burst 1.3.3 The role of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in fungal immunity 1.3.4 C-type lectin receptors and signal transduction pathways 1.3.5 Activation of dendritic cells 1.3.6 Cellular effector responses
Adaptive immunity to fungi
2.1 At the crossroads between innate and adaptive antifungal immunity (Dendritic cells) 2.2 Th responses 2.3 Cytotoxic and killer cells 2.4 Antibody responses
Regulation of antifungal immunity
3.1 Inflammation vs. tolerance: a balancing act 3.2 Cytokines and Th polarization 3.3 IDO and tryptophan metabolism
Controversies and outstanding issues
4.1 Antifungal overdosing and host immunity 4.2 Reshaping immunity by immunotherapy 4.3 The role of iron metabolism in fungal immunity
13. ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS FOR USE IN HUMAN THERAPY Khaled H Abu Elteen and Mawieh Hamad 13.0 Introduction (to be revised in the light of the new scope the edited chapter, inclusion of one or more new figures; update previous figures and enhance their quality to look more appealing) 13.1 Drugs Targeting the Plasma Membrane 13.1.1 Polyenes 18.104.22.168 General Properties 22.214.171.124 Mechanism(S) of Action (Adding more information about other formulations of AMB) 126.96.36.199 Spectrum of Activity 188.8.131.52 Pharmacokinetics 184.108.40.206 Administration and Dosage 220.127.116.11 Adverse Effects 18.104.22.168 Resistance to Polyenes 13.1.2 Azoles 22.214.171.124 General Properties (More information about newer generations of triazoles: Isavuconazole, Ravuconazole, Efinaconazole, Luliconazole and Albaconazole) 126.96.36.199 Mechanism of Action 188.8.131.52 Spectrum of Activity 184.108.40.206 Pharmacokinetics 220.127.116.11 Adverse Effects 18.104.22.168 Resistance to Azoles 13.1.3 Allylamines and Thiocarbamates 13.1.4 Octenidine and Pirtenidine 13.1.5 Morpholines and Other Agents 13.2 Drugs Targeting the Cell Wall 13.2.1 Echinocandins and Aminocandin 22.214.171.124 Caspofungin 126.96.36.199 Anidulafungin 188.8.131.52 Micafungin 13.2.2 Nikkomycin and Chitin Synthesis 13.3 Drugs Targeting Nucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis 13.3.1 Sordarin and its derivatives 13.3.2 5-Fluorocytosine 184.108.40.206 Mechanism of Action 220.127.116.11 Spectrum of Activity 18.104.22.168 Pharmacokinetics and Dosage 22.214.171.124 Adverse Effects 126.96.36.199 Resistance to 5-FC 13.4 Novel Therapies (to be revised in light of recent developments in antifungal immunotherapy, new antifungal peptides, advances in probiotic therapy) 13.5 Conclusion [to be re-focused] 13.6 Revision Questions [to be revisited] 13.7 Further Reading [to be updated] 14. FUNGAL PATHOGENS OF PLANTS - To be updated and revised Fiona Doohan 14.1 Fungal pathogens of plants 14.2 Disease symptoms 14.3 Factors influencing disease development 14.4 The disease cycle 14.5 Genetics of the plant-fungal pathogen interaction. 14.6 Mechanisms of fungal plant parasitism 14.7 Mechanisms of host defence 14.8 Disease control 14.9 Disease detection and diagnosis 14.10 Vascular wilt diseases 14.11 Blights 14.12 Rots and damping off diseases 14.13 Leaf and stem spots, anthracnose and scabs 14.14 Rusts, smuts and powdery mildew diseases 14.15 Global repercussions of fungal diseases of plants 14.16 Conclusion 14.17 References 14.18 Revision questions 15. FUNGI IN THE ENVIRONMENT Richard O Hanlon New Chapter in Third edition Fungi are ubiquitous in the natural environment. There are an estimated 1.5 million species of fungi, and these can be roughly divided into symbiotic, saprobic or pathogenic lifestyles depending on how they gain their primary food source. Symbiotic fungi exist in a close association with an other organism, and include mycorrhizal and lichen forming fungi. Saprobic fungi play a large part in recycling important nutrients (e.g. N, P, K) back into the environment. Pathogenic fungi are responsible for economic losses in agriculture and forestry, but like saprobic fungi, also play an important role in recycling nutrients back into ecosystems. Fungi also provide a food source for other organisms in natural environments, their fruit bodies (e.g. mushrooms, truffles) being eaten by a wide range of insects and animals. Fungal surveys use a wide range of techniques to detect and measure fungal diversity and biomass in the environment. 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Symbiotic fungi 15.3 Saprobic fungi 15.4 Pathogenic fungi 15.5 Fungi in food webs 15.6 Fungi and nutrient cycling 15.7 Quantifying fungi in the environment 15.8 Conclusions 15.9 Further reading 15.10 Revision questions Answers to Revision Questions. Index.
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