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Johnson, Christopher

Mapping the Chemical Environment of Urban Areas

€ 150.95

This comprehensive text focuses on the increasingly important issues of urban geochemical mapping with key coverage of the distribution and behaviour of chemicals and compounds in the urban environment.


Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:
Contributors

Foreword

Acknowledgements

Abbreviations and Acronyms

1 Introduction
References

2 Urban Geochemical Mapping: A Review of Case Studies in this Volume
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Methodologies and strategies for urban sampling
2.3 Chemical analysis
2.4 Quality control
2.5 Interpreting and presenting the results
2.6 Legislation
2.7 Communication
2.8 Future trends
References

3 Sample Preparation and Inorganic Analysis for Urban Geochemical Survey Soil and Sediment Samples
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Field sample preservation
3.3 Physical sample preparation
3.4 Determination of bulk properties
3.5 Analytical sample preparation
3.6 Instrumental analysis for inorganic analytes
3.7 Application of quality assurance
3.8 Health and safety issues
References

4 Organic Analysis for Urban Geochemical Survey Soil Samples
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Field sample preservation
4.3 Organic sample preparation
4.4 Instrumental analysis for organic analytes
4.5 Application of quality assurance/quality control
References

5 Understanding the Quality of Chemical Data from the Urban Environment - Part 1: Quality Control Procedures
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Preparing for quality control
5.3 Operational aspects of quality control
5.4 Assessing data quality
5.5 Data storage
5.6 Concluding remarks
Acknowledgements
References

6 Understanding the Quality of Chemical Data from the Urban Environment - Part 2: Measurement Uncertainty in the Decision-Making Process
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Estimation of uncertainty due to sampling and analysis
6.3 Practical detection limit and analytical precision
6.4 Limitations of the geochemical data set: quality and reliability
6.5 Effects of uncertainty and probabilistic risk assessment maps
6.6 Worked examples
6.7 Probabilistic risk assessment mapping using kriging
6.8 Discussion and conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

7 Data Analysis for Urban Geochemical Data
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Preparations for data analysis
7.3 Urban geochemistry of Berlin
7.4 Conclusions
References

8 Sources of Anthropogenic Contaminants in the Urban Environment
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Heavy metals
8.3 Gaseous pollutants
8.4 Organic compounds
8.5 Discussion and conclusions
References

9 Building Materials: An Important Source for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Urban Soils
9.1 Introduction
9.2 What are PCBs?
9.3 PCBs in the urban environment: levels and concerns
9.4 Discussion: the road ahead
References

10 Children, Soils, and Health: How Do Polluted Soils Influence Children`s Health?
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Sources of arsenic, lead, BaP and PCB in urban soils
10.3 Exposure, uptake and health effects
10.4 Discussion and conclusions
References

11 Hazard and Exposure Assessment in Contaminated Land Investigations and Environmental Management
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Site conceptual model
11.3 Hazard and exposure assessment
11.4 Environmental management
11.5 Risk perception and communication
11.6 Discussion and conclusions
11.7 Recommendations
References

12 Regulation and Administration of Soil Pollution in Trondheim, Norway: Development of Awareness, Land-Use-Specific Criteria and Local Disposal Facilities
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Raising awareness of soil pollution in site development
12.3 Increasing predictability
12.4 Increasing disposal and storage facilities
12.5 Conclusions
References

13 Soil Geochemical Baselines in UK Urban Centres: The G-BASE Project
13.1 Introduction
13.2 G-BASE urban geochemistry methods
13.3 Results
13.4 Discussion of G-BASE urban geochemical data
13.5 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

14 Geochemical Baseline Levels and Suggested Local Guideline Values in Urban Areas in Sweden
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Methods
14.3 Study area description
14.4 Results
14.5 Discussion and conclusions
References

15 Using Geochemical Baselines in the Assessment of Soil Contamination in Finland
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Geochemical baselines in the assessment procedure
15.3 Data producers and the national database
15.4 Example: geochemical baseline data from the Pirkanmaa region and a study site
15.5 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

16 The Scale of an Urban Contamination Footprint: Results from a Transect through Oslo, Norway
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Sampling and analytical methods
16.3 Results
16.4 Conclusions
References

17 Urban Geochemistry of Berlin, Germany
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Geology and hydrogeology
17.3 Soils
17.4 Land use in Berlin
17.5 Material and methods
17.6 Results and discussion
17.7 Conclusions
References

18 Environmental Geochemical Survey of the City of Stassfurt: An Old Mining and Industrial Urban Area in Sachsen-Anhalt, Germany
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Site conditions
18.3 Regional geology
18.4 Soil properties
18.5 Materials and methods
18.6 Results and discussion
18.7 Discussion and conclusions
References

19 Systematic Urban Geochemistry of Madrid, Spain, Based on Soils and Dust
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Methods
19.3 Results and discussion
19.4 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

20 Urban Geochemistry of Tallinn (Estonia): Major and Trace Elements Distribution in Topsoil
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Methods of sampling and analysis
20.3 Results
20.4 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

21 Geochemical and Ecological Survey of the Prague City Area, Czech Republic
21.1 Introduction
21.2 Materials and methods
21.3 Results and discussion
21.4 Conclusions
References

22 Geochemical Mapping of Ljubljana Urban and Suburban Area, Slovenia
22.1 Introduction
22.2 Study area
22.3 Materials and methods
22.4 Results and discusion
22.5 Conclusions
References

23 Geochemical Characteristics of Lithuanian Urban Areas
23.1 Introduction
23.2 History of geochemical investigations
23.3 Application of results for health risk assessment
23.4 Discussion of results
23.5 Conclusions
References

24 Advancements in Urban Geochemical Mapping of the Naples Metropolitan Area: Colour Composite Maps and Results from an Urban Brownfield Site
24.1 Introduction
24.2 Study area
24.3 Soils
24.4 Methods
24.5 Results and discussion
24.6 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

25 The Lavrion Urban Geochemistry Study, Hellas
25.1 Introduction
25.2 Historical review
25.3 Sampling and sample preparation
25.4 Laboratory analysis
25.5 Distribution of lead in parent rocks
25.6 Metallurgical processing wastes
25.7 Distribution of lead in overburden
25.8 Distribution of lead in house dust
25.9 Lead levels in child blood and teeth
25.10 Geochemistry of groundwater
25.11 Discussion
25.12 Conclusions and recommendations
Acknowledgements
References

26 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Urban Surface Soil in Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim, Norway: PAH16 levels, Compositions and Ratios
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Materials and methods
26.3 Results and discussion
26.4 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

27 Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in Urban Surface Soil in Norway
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Areas investigated with an industrial past and present
27.3 Sampling and analytical methods
27.4 Results
27.5 Interpretation and discussion
27.6 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

28 Soil Contamination in the Urban Area of Belgrade, Serbia
28.1 Geography
28.2 Legal and institutional framework for soil management
28.4 Soil monitoring
28.5 Presentation of soil pollution data
28.6 Engineering geology in the service of environmental protection: Geological Institute of Serbia
28.7 Reporting requirements
28.8 Concluding remarks
References

29 Clean Soil at Child-Care Centres and Public Playgrounds - An Important Part of Norway`s Chemical Policy
29.1 Introduction
29.2 Survey area
29.3 Materials and methods
29.4 Health risk evaluation
29.5 Results and comments
29.6 Discussion
29.7 Conclusions
References

30 Geochemical Mapping of the Denver, Colorado (USA) Urban Area: A Comparison of Studies in 1972 and 2005
30.1 Introduction
30.2 Study area
30.3 Sample design
30.4 Sample preparation and chemical analysis
30.5 Results and discussion
30.6 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

31 Geochemical Characterization of Soil and Sediments of the City of Beira, Mozambique: A Preliminary Approach
31.1 Introduction
31.2 Study area
31.3 Materials and methods
31.4 Results
31.5 Discussion
31.6 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

32 Urban Geochemical Mapping in Nigeria with Some Examples From Southern Nigeria
32.1 Introduction
32.2 Review of urban mapping in Nigeria
32.3 Methods used in urban geochemical mapping in Nigeria
32.4 Urban geochemical mapping in Nigeria: the way forward
References

33 Geochemical Mapping of Trace Metal Pollutants in Urban Soils of Hong Kong
33.1 Introduction
33.2 Materials and methods
33.3 Results and discussion
33.4 Conclusions
Acknowledgements
References

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640 pagina's
Januari 2011
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