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Gupta, Avijit Large Rivers
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Gupta, Avijit

Large Rivers

Geomorphology and Management

€ 315.95

Despite the fact that a very large proportion of the world s population lives in the basins of large rivers, there is very little information that is easily available on the world s large rivers: the Amazon, the Mississippi, the Nile, the Congo, and the Indus, to name a few.


Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:

Contents

  1. Introduction
  1. A book on large rivers
  2. What is a large river?
  3. The book and its content
  4. Acknowledgements

References   

  1. Geology Of Large River Systems
  1. Introduction
  2. Tectonic Settings Of Large River Systems

Rivers in Continental collision belts

2.2.2       Rivers in Rift settings

2.2.3       Rivers in cratonic settings

2.3 Complexity Of Drainage Types

2.4 Large Rivers Climatic Settings And Climatic Variability

2.5 Modern Large Rivers Hydrology And Sediment Dispersal

2.6 Variability In The Alluvial Architecture Of Large River Systems

2.6.1       Longitudinal trunk systems

2.6.2       Radial fans

2.6.3       Fan interfan setting

2.6.4       Interfluves

2.7 Growth And Development Of Large River Systems

2.8 Duration Of Large River Systems And The Rock Record

2.9 Sea Level, Tectonic And Climatic Controls On The Large River Systems

2.10         Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

References

  1. Hydrology And Discharge 

3.1 Hydrology of large river basins

3.2 Large rivers of the equatorial regions

3.2.1 Amazon River

3.2.2 Congo River

3.2.3 Zambezi River

3.3 Large rivers of the drylands

3.3.1 Nile River

3.3.2 Indus River

3.3.3 Colorado River

3.3.4 Murray Darling River

3.5 Rivers of the mid latitudes

3.5.1 Mississippi River

3.5.2 Danube River

3.6 Rivers draining south from the Himalaya

3.6.1 Ganga River

3.6.2 Brahmaputra River

3.7 Rivers of East and Southeast Asia

3.7.1 Huang He

3.7.2 Chang Jiang

3.7.3 Mekong River

3.8 High latitude rivers

3.8.1 Ob, Yenisey, Lena Rivers

3.8.2 Mackenzie and Yukon Rivers

3.9 Summary

Acknowledgements

References

4.      TranscontinentalMoving And Storage: The Orinoco And Amazon Rivers Transfer The Andes To The Atlantic

  1. Greatest Floods and Largest Rivers

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Historical background

5.3 Terrestrial glacial megafloods

5.3.1       Cordilleran Ice Sheet

5.3.2       Laurentide Ice Sheet

5.3.3       Eurasia Ice Sheets

5.4 Extraterrestrial megafloods and megarivers

5.5 Conclusions

References

  1. Classification, Architecture, and Evolution of Large river Deltas

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Definition of a Delta and Delta Components

6.3 Classification of Deltas

6.4 Morphology and Sediment

6.4.1       Morphology

6.4.2       Sediments and sediment facies

6.4.3       Sediment accumulation rates

6.5 Delta Evolution

6.5.1       Response to Holocene sea level change

6.5.2       Changes in the course of a river channel and of its distributaries

6.5.3       Coastal environment change related to delta progradation

6.6 Problems of Sediment Supply

6.6.1       Estimation of past sediment discharge

6.6.2       Sediment budgets in deltas and sediment supply to the oceans

6.7 Concluding Remarks

Acknowledgements

References

  1. Sedimentology and stratigraphy of large river deposits: recognition in the ancient record, and distinction from incised valley fills

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Sedimentology and Stratigraphy of Modern Big Rivers

7.3 Sedimentology and Stratigraphy of Ancient Big Rivers

7.4 Discussion: Ancient big river deposits vs. incised valley fills

7.5 Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

  1. Effects of tectonism, climate change, and sea level change on the form and behaviour of the modern Amazon River and its floodplain

8.1 Background

8.2 Amazon Basin Characteristics

8.3 Lithologic and Tectonic Influences on the Modern Amazon

8.3.1       First order basin scale influences

8.3.2       Second order transverse structures

8.3.3       Fracture patterns

8.3.4       Structural influences on Amazon River geomorphology

8.4 Influence of Climate Change on the Amazon River

8.5 Influence of Sea level Changes on the Amazon River and Floodplain

8.6 Conclusions

8.7 References

  1. The Mississippi River System

10. The Colorado River

11. The Lena River: hydromorphodynamic features in a deep permafrost zone

11.1         Introduction

11.2         Description of the Lena Drainage Basin

11.3         A periglacial environment

11.4         Floodplain, delta and periglacial land forms

11.5         Fluvial dynamics and landforms

11.6         Thermal erosion and its impact on the fluvial forms

11.7         Impact of climatic change on the hydrosystem

11.8         Conclusion

References

  1. The Danube: morphology, evolution and environmental issues

12.1         Introduction

12.2         Water and sediment

12.3         Headwaters of the Danube

12.4         The Danube: a description

12.4.1  The Upper Danube in Germany and Austria

12.5         The Danube Delta

12.5.1  Delta habitats and environmental problems

12.6         The evolution of the valley of the Danube

12.6.1  The upper section

12.6.2  The middle section

12.6.3  The lower section

12.6.4  The delta

12.7         Human impacts

12.7.1  A brief history of channelisation

12.7.2  The Rhine Main Danube Canal

12.7.3  A recent example of damming the Danube: the Gabcíkovo Barrage in Slovakia

12.7.4  Pollution

12.7.5  How much is the Danube worth?

References

  1. The Nile

13.1         Introduction

13.2         Nile Basin River Environments

13.3         Early Origins And The Late Miocene And Pliocene Nile

13.3.1  The Late Miocene Nile Canyon in Egypt

13.3.2  The Integrated Nile

13.4         The Late Pleistocene And Holocene Nile

13.4.1  20,000 to 12,500 14C years BP

13.4.2  12,500 to 5,000 14C years BP

13.4.3  5000 14C years BP to present

13.5         Records Of Nile River Behaviour In The Eastern Mediterranean Sea

13.6         The Modern Nile: Hydrology And Geomorphology

13.6.1  The White Nile basin

13.6.2  The Blue Nile and Atbara basins

13.6.3  The confluence zone and the desert Nile from Khartoum to the Mediterranean

13.7         The Suspended Sediment Budget

13.7.1  Reservoir Sedimentation

13.7.2  Suspended Sediment Dynamics Downstream of the High Aswan Dam

13.8         The Nile Delta And The Eastern Mediterranean

13.8.1  The delta and coastal zone

13.8.2  Sediment Supply to the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

13.9         River Basin Management And Global Change

Acknowledgements

References

  1. Congo River, Central Africa

14.1         Introduction

14.2         The Course of the Congo River

14.3         Geology and geomorphology of the Congo Basin

14.3.1  The central Congo Basin

14.3.2  The Asande Rise

14.3.3  Atlantic Rise

14.3.4  Angolan and Shaba Highland

14.3.5  Western Rift Rise

14.4         Evolution of the Congo River

14.5         The Flow Regime of the Congo

14.6         Solid, suspended, and dissolved load

14.7         The Congo mouth and the submarine canyon

14.8         The Congo River and its economic importance

14.9         Conclusion

References

  1. The Zambezi River

15.1         Introduction

15.2         The Zambezi River System

15.3         Hydrology

15.4         Ecological Impact of Major Dams

15.5         Evolution of The Zambezi River System

15.6         Drainage Evolution and Speciation

15.7         Cultural and Economic Aspects

15.8         Conclusion

Acknowledgements

References

  1. The Geographic, Geological And Oceanographic Setting Of The Indus River

16.1         Introduction

16.2         The Drainage Basin

16.2.1  Geology

16.2.2  Hydrology

16.3         The River

16.4         Evolution of the Indus River

16.5         The Indus Delta

16.6         Submarine Indus System

16.7         Water management

16.8         The Indus dolphins

16.9         Environmental changes

16.10    Human induced changes in the Indus Delta

16.11    Conclusion

References

  1. The Ganga River

17.1         Introduction

17.2         Hydrology

17.3         Water quality

17.4         Sediment transfer in the Ganga

17.4.1  Dissolved load

17.4.2  Suspended load and bed load

17.5         Mineralogy and geochemistry of sediments

17.6         Heavy metals and pollutants in the sediment

17.7         The Plain and the River

17.8         The Delta

17.9         A summary of current geomorphic processes

17.10    Quaternary Evolution of the Ganga

17.11    Utilisation of the river and associated problems

Acknowledgements

References

  1. Erosion and Weathering in the Brahmaputra River System

18.1         Introduction

18.2         The Brahmaputra River system

18.3         Geology of the Basin

18.4         Hydrology

18.5         Floods in the Brahmaputra

18.6         Characteristics of the Brahmaputra channel

18.7         Erosion and weathering

18.8         Sediment Yield or Erosion rates in the various zones

18.9         Chemical weathering and erosion

18.9.1  Water chemistry

18.10    Bed load and weathering intensity

18.11    Control on Physical and Chemical Erosion in the Brahmaputra Basin

18.12    Conclusion

References

  1. The Brahmaputra Jamuna River, Bangladesh

19.1         Background

19.2         Channel Scale Morphology and Historical Changes in the Course of the Brahmaputra Jamuna River

19.3         Bedform types and dynamics

19.4         Bifurcations, Offtakes and Confluences

19.5         Floodplain Sedimentation

19.6         Sedimentology of the Jamuna River

19.7         Applied geomorphology and engineering in the Jamuna River

19.8         Summary

Acknowledgements

References

  1. The Mekong River: Morphology, Evolution, Management

20.1         Introduction

20.2         The Mekong Basin

20.2.1  Geology

20.2.2  Relief

20.2.3  Hydrology

20.2.4  Land use

20.3         The River

20.4         The Mekong Over Time: The Geomorphic History

20.5         Erosion and Sediment Transfer

20.6         The Mekong and its Basin: Resource and Management

20.7         Conclusion

Acknowledgement

References

  1. Dynamic Hydrology And Geomorphology Of The Yangtze River

21.1         Basin geology and landforms

21.2         River morphology

21.3         Storage and transfer of water and sediment

21.3.1  Discharge and flood patterns

21.3.2  Sediment flux in the Yangtze: a decreasing trend over the last 40 years

21.3.3  Three Gorges area: a new sediment provenance and a depleted valley

21.3.4. Middle Yangtze: sediment sources and sinks

21.3.5. The Lower Yangtze: transfer of sediment

21.3.6. The Yangtze Estuary: a major sediment sink

21.4         Large scale River management Three Gorges Dam and the planned water

Acknowledgement

Reference

  1. The Nile River: Geology, Hydrology, Hydraulic Society

22.1         Introduction

22.2         Physiography

22.2.1  The Lake District

22.2.2  The Lowlands of Southern Sudan

22.2.3  The Ethiopian Tableland

22.2.4  The Cataract Reach

22.2.5  The Alluvial Nile

22.3         Geologic History

22.3.1  White Nile: Uganda, Kenya, Sudan

22.3.2  Egypt

22.3.3  The Blue Nile and the Atbara: Ethiopia

22.4         Climate and Climate Change

22.4.1  Introduction

22.4.2  The Region

22.5         Hydrology

22.5.1  Introduction

22.5.2  The White Nile

22.5.3  The Blue Nile

22.5.4  The Nile below Khartoum

22.5.5  The Nile Flows in Egypt

22.6         A Unique Record

22.7         The Nile and Hydraulic Civilizations

Acknowledgements

References

  1. Patterns and controls on historical channel change in the Willamette River, Oregon USA

23.1         Introduction

23.2         An approach for interpreting multiple impacts on large rivers

23.3         Geologic setting, human and flood history  of the Willamette

23.3.1  Watershed physiography & climate

23.3.2  Geological Setting of the Willamette in Relation to Channel Stability

23.3.3  Study length delineation

23.3.4  Timeline and consequences of Euro American interaction with Willamette River

23.3.5  Flood History of the Willamette River

23.4         Data & Methods for Measuring Historical Channel Change

23.4.1  Historical Channel Maps

23.4.2  Measuring Rates & Styles of Channel Change

23.4.3  Development of a 2D flood model for Willamette River

23.5         Results: patterns and controls on historical channel changes

23.5.1  McKenzie Reach, 1850 1995

23.5.2  Long Tom Reach, 1850 1995

23.5.3  Santiam Reach 1850 1995

23.5.4  Summary of Willamette River channel change 1850 1995

23.5.5  Flood model results 

23.6         Discussion, narrative of historical channel change

23.6.1  Interpreting historical channel change, 1850 1995

23.6.2  Extending lessons learned on the Willamette to other large rivers

23.7         Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

  1. Rivers And Humans Unintended Consequences

25.1 Introduction

25.2 Armour

25.2.1              Missouri River

25.2.2              River Nile

25.2.3              Mississippi River

25.3        Hydrology

25.3.1              Platte River

25.3.2              Niobrara River

25.3.3              Middle Mississippi River

25.4        Conclusions

References

  1. Large Rivers from Space

26.1        Introduction

26.2        Basin Characteristics

26.3        Valley Configuration

26.4        Geomorphology

26.5        Water Surface Elevation, Gradient, and Discharge

26.6        Water Extent and Inundation Mapping

26.7        Mapping Sediment Concentration

26.8        Zambezi River Water Type Mapping on Floodplains

26.9        Thermal Properties

26.10    Change Detection

26.10.1            Mesopotamian Marshlands

References

  1. Channel Geometry Analysis Technique For The Lower Mississippi River

26.1         Introduction

26.2         Context

26.2.1  Lower Mississippi RiverChannel Geometry

26.3         Data Acquisition and Pre Processing

26.3.1  Pilot Study Reach

26.3.2  Low Water Reference Plane

26.3.3  Separation of bends and crossings

26.3.4  Divided Channels

26.3.5  Pre Processing Procedure for Hydrographic Survey Files

26.3.6  Data Projection

26.3.7  Cross Section Screening

26.4         Analytical Approach and Methodology

26.4.1  Channel Geometry Analysis

26.4.2  Probability Analysis

26.4.3  Spatial Analysis

26.4.4  Temporal Analysis

26.5         Results

26.5.1  At a Station Channel Geometry

26.5.2  Spatial Variability and Adjustments

26.5.3  Temporal Variability and Adjustments

26.6         Interpretation and Commentary

26.6.1  Channel Geometry Analysis

26.6.2  Spatial Analysis

26.6.3  Temporal Analysis

26.7         Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

  1. The Management of Large Rivers: technical and political challenges

27.1         Introduction

27.2         The Challenges of River Management

27.2.1  Technical challenges

27.3. Management of Rivers in Developing Countries

27.3.1 Capacity

27.3.2 Need for Rapid Development

27.3.3 Lack of Inclusivity in Governance

27.3.4 Subsistence Use

27.4. Conclusions

References

28. The physical diversity and assessment of a large river system: The Murray Darling Basin, Australia

28.1         Introduction

28.2         The Murray Darling Basin

28.3         The challenge for assessing rivers in the Murray Darling Basin

28.3.1  The Theory

28.3.2  Application

28.4         Assessing the physical condition of rivers at the catchment scale

28.5         The physical condition of rivers in the Murray Darling Basin

28.5.1  Functional process zones

28.6         The Geography of Disturbance

28.7         Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

  1. Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts on Water and Sediment Discharges from the Yangtze River (Changjiang), 1950 2005

29.1         Introduction

29.2         Physical setting

29.3         Data and Methods

29.4         Spatial Variations of Water and Sediment

29.5         Temporal Variations of Water and Sediment

29.5.1  Annual Variations

29.5.2  Monthly Variations

29.6         Discussion Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts

29.6.1  Climatic Impacts

29.6.2  Anthropogenic Impacts

29.7         Future Change and Coastal Responses

29.7.1  Water Discharge

29.7.2  Sediment Load

29.7.3  Coastal Responses

29.8         Climatic and Anthropogenic Impacts on Other Global Rivers The Mississippi Example

29.9         Conclusions

Acknowledgements

References

  1. Large River Systems And Climate Change

30.1         Introduction

30.2         A Brief History Of Ideas

30.3         Fluvial Response To Climate Change: Some General Concepts

30.3.1  Continental Interiors: Uplift, Subsidence, and Climate Change

30.3.2  Continental Margins: Importance of Relative Sea Level Change

30.4         Fluvial Response To Past Climate Change: Contrasting Examples

30.4.1  The Colorado River in Grand Canyon, Western USA

30.4.2  The Ganga Brahmaputra System, India and Bangladesh

30.4.3  The Lower Mississippi River, Southcentral USA

30.5         Epilogue: Large Rivers And Climate Change, Past To Future

References

 

 

 

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