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Bernhard H. Goethert

Transonic Wind Tunnel Testing

€ 27.95



Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:
FOREWORD xi
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xiii
LIST OF SYMBOLS xv
1. INTRODUCTION
1
2. REVIEW OF THE HISTORY OF TRANSONIC TEST FACILITY DEVELOPMENT
2
1. Low Speed Wind Tunnels
2
2. High Speed Subsonic Wind Tunnels
7
3. Drop Tests
11
4. Rotating Rigs
12
5. Transonic Testing with Wing-Flow Technique
14
6. Transonic Testing in Closed Wind Tunnels with Movable Sidewalls
17
7. Transonic Testing in Closed Wind Tunnels with Thick Boundary Layer
18
8. Wind Tunnels with Slotted Walls
21
9. Wind Tunnels with Perforated Walls
25
10. Concluding Remarks
29
References and Bibliography
30
3. FLOW AROUND AIRPLANES IN FREE FLIGHT
32
1. Subsonic Speed Range
32
2. Mach Number Influence in Subsonic Speed Range
33
3. Sonic Speed
37
4. Supersonic Speed Range
39
References and Bibliography
40
4. WALL INTERFERENCE CORRECTIONS IN CONVENTIONAL WIND TUNNELS
41
1. Open-Jet Wind Tunnels
41
2. Closed Wind Tunnels
44
3. Comparison of Wall Interference Corrections for Various Types of Test Sections (Subsonic Flow)
53
References and Bibliography
56
5. SUBSONIC FLOW IN WIND TUNNELS WITH LONGITUDINAL SLOTS
57
1. Physical Aspects and Wall Interference in Slotted Wind Tunnels (Without Lift)
57
2. Characteristics of Special Slot Configurations
68
3. Distribution of Velocity Corrections along Model
71
4. Mach Number Influence on the Effectiveness of Walls with Longitudinal Slots (Without Lift)
74
5. Lifting Wing in a Circular Wind Tunnel with Longitudinal Slots
75
References and Bibliography
84
6. SUBSONIC FLOW IN WIND TUNNELS WITH PERFORATED WALLS
86
1. Basic Characteristics of Perforated Walls
86
2. Flow Distortions in Perforated Wall Wind Tunnels
88
3. Velocity-corrections in the Vicinity of One Perforated Wall (Two-dimensional, Incompressible Flow)
92
4. Flow Disturbances in a Perforated Two-dimensional Wind Tunnel (Two Perforated Walls)
100
5. Velocity Corrections in Circular Perforated Wind Tunnels
103
6. Comparison of the Flow at Large Distance Behind a Lifting Wing in Slotted and Perforated Wind Tunnels
106
Appendix
107
References and Bibliography
108
7. EXPERIMENTS IN SLOTTED AND PERFORATED WIND TUNNELS AT SUBSONIC AND SONIC MACH NUMBERS
109
1. Introduction.
109
2. Two-dimensional Double-wedge Airfoil Models in Conventional and Slotted Wind Tunnels
109
3. Two-dimensional Airfoil Model in Different Slotted Wind Tunnels
116
4. Body of Revolution in Slotted Wind Tunnels and in Free Fall
120
5. Experiments with Bodies of Revolution in Perforated Test Sections
123
6. Experiments with Wing-fuselage Models in Perforated Test Sections
125
7. Bodies of Revolution at Sonic Speed
130
References and Bibliography
134
8. SUPERSONIC WALL INTERFERENCE IN PARTIALLY OPEN TEST SECTIONS FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL CONFIGURATIONS
136
1. General Considerations Concerning Wave Reflections in Open, Closed, and Partially Open Test Sections
136
2. Theory of Wave Cancellations in Wind Tunnels with Longitudinal Slots
140
3. Theory of Wave Cancellation in Perforated Wind Tunnels
142
4. Experimental Results for Two-dimensional Shock-wave Cancellation
144
5. Experimental Results for Two-dimensional Expansion-Wave Cancellation
157
Appendix
159
References and Bibliography
165
9. SUPERSONIC WALL INTERFERENCE IN PARTIALLY OPEN TEST SECTIONS FOR MODELS OF ROTATIONAL SYMMETRY AND COMPARISON WITH TWO-DIMENSIONAL WALL INTERFERENCE
167
1. Boundary Conditions along Wind Tunnel Walls: Two-dimensional and Three-dimensional Models
167
2. Model Disturbances Compared with Cross-flow Characteristics of Perforated Test Sections (Conventional and Differential-resistance Type)
171
3. Model Disturbance Characteristics Compared with the Cross-flow Characteristics of Combined Slotted perforated Test-section Walls
174
4. Wind Tunnel Test Results Obtained for Cone-cylinder Models in Various Partially Open Test Sections at a Mach Number of 1.20
178
5. Results of Wind Tunnel Testing with Three-dimensional Models in Perforated Test Sections at Various Mach Numbers and Blockage Ratios
190
References and Bibliography
198
10. TYPICAL TEST RESULTS FROM COMPLETE AIRPLANE MODELS IN TRANSONIC WIND TUNNELS 200
1. Influence of Flow Non-uniformities
200
2. Comparison of Force Measurements for a Fuselage-wing Model in Slotted and Perforated Test Sections
203
3. Tests in Slotted Test Sections
209
4. Tests in Perforated Test Sections
217
5. Comparison between Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Results
229
6. Concluding Remarks
232
References and Bibliography
234
11. CROSS-FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTIALLY OPEN WALL ELEMENTS 236
1. Physical Aspects of the Flow through Partially Open Walls
236
2. Theoretical Calculations for the Pressure Drop through Perforated Walls
240
3. Experiments to Determine the Cross-flow Characteristics of Perforated Walls
248
4. Experiments to Determine the Influence of Detailed Wall Geometry and Flow Parameters
256
5. Experiments to Determine Cross-flow Characteristics of Walls with Longitudinal Slots
270
6. Flow Disturbances of Wall Openings and Their Decay
275
7. Concluding Remarks
279
References and Bibliography
280
12. FLOW ESTABLISHMENT IN TRANSONIC WIND TUNNELS 281
1. General Discussion of the Problem Areas.
281
2. Establishment of Subsonic Flow in Perforated Test Sections
283
3. Establishment of Subsonic Flow in Slotted Test Sections
296
4. Supersonic Flow Establishment in Perforated Test Sections
300
5. Supersonic Flow Establishment in Slotted Test Sections
312
6. Requirements for Mass Flow Removal from Partially Open Test Sections
319
7. Calibration of Partially Open Test Sections
325
References and Bibliography
331
13. BOUNDARY LAYER GROWTH ALONG PARTIALLY OPEN WALLS 334
1. Simplified Theoretical Considerations
334
2. Refined Theory for Boundary Layer Growth along Perforated Walls
339
3. Experimental Determination of Velocity Profiles and Displacement Thickness of Boundary Layers Adjacent to Perforated Walls
346
4. Experimental Determination of Boundary Layer Development in Slotted Test Sections
352
References and Bibliography
355
14. POWER REQUIREMENTS OF TRANSONIC WIND TUNNELS 356
1. Influence of Auxiliary Plenum Chamber Suction on Power Requirements
356
2. Power Requirements of Perforated Test Sections for Various Combinations of Auxiliary Plenum Chamber and Diffuser Suction
358
3. Influence of Wall Setting on Power Requirements (Perforated Test Sections)
364
4. Influence of Wall Geometry (Perforated Walls)
367
5. Influence of Model Size (Perforated Test Section)
369
6. Comparison of Perforated Test Sections Equipped with Sonic and Supersonic Nozzles
370
7. Power Requirements of Wind Tunnels with Slotted Test Sections
371
8. Full-scale Wind Tunnels
378
References and Bibliography
381
15. LIST OF TRANSONIC WIND TUNNELS AND THEIR MAIN CHARACTERISTIC DATA 383
1. Abbreviations Used
383
2. Table of Transonic Wind Tunnels
384
16. CONCLUDING REMARKS 390
INDEX 392
Extra informatie: 
Paperback / softback
397 pagina's
Januari 2007
508 gram
235 x 152 x 25 mm
DOVER PUBN INC us


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