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Gan, Woon Siong ,Dr

Acoustical Imaging - Techniques and Applications for Engineers

€ 146.95

This reference starts with an introduction to the basic theories and principles of acoustics and acoustical imaging, then progresses to discuss its varied applications: nondestructive testing, medical imaging, underwater imaging, and SONAR and geophysical exploration.


Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:
Chapter One Introduction

References

Chapter Two Physics of Acoustics and Acoustical Imaging

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Sound Propagation in Solids

2.2.1 Derivation of Linear Wave Equation of Motion and Its Solutions

2.2.2 Symmetries in Linear Acosu ustic Wave Equations and the New Stress Field Equation

2.3 Use of Gauge Potential Theory to Solve Acoustic Wave Equations

2.4 Propagation of Finite Wave Amplitude Sound Wave in Solids

2.4.1 Higher-Order Elasticity Theory

2.4.2 Nonlinear Effects

2.4.3 Derivation of the Nonlinear Acoustic Equation of Motion

2.4.4 Solutions of the Higher Order Acosutics Equations of Motion

2.5 Nonlinear Effects due to Energy Absorption

2.5.1 Energy Absorption due to Thermal Conductivity

2.5.2 Energy Absorption due to Dislocation

2.6 Gauge Theory Formulation of Sound Propagation in Solids

2.6.1 Introduction of a Covariant Derivative in the Infinitesimal Amplitude Sound Wave

2.6.2 Introduction of Covariant Derivative to the Large Amplitude Sound Wave Equation

References

Chapter Three Signal Processing

3.1.1 Matrix Theory

3.1.2 Some Properties of Matrices

3.1.3 Fourier Transformation

3.1.4 The Z Transform

3.2 Image Enhancement

3.2.1 Spatial Low-Pass, High-Pass and Band-Pass Filtering

3.2.2 Magnification and Interpolation (Zooming)

3.2.3 Replication

3.2.4 Linear Interpolation

3.2.5 Transform Operation

3.3 Image Sampling & Quantization

3.4 Stochastic Modelling of Images

3.5 Beamforming

3.5.1 Principles of Beamforming

3.5.2 Sonar Beamforming Requirements

3.6 Finite Element Method

3.6.1 Introduction

3.6.2 Applications

3.Boundary Element Method

3.7.1 Comparison to Other Methods

References

Chapter 4 Common Methodologies of Acoustical Imaging

4.1 Introductin

4.2 Tomography

4.2.1 The Born Approximation

4.2.2 The Rytov Approximation

4.2.3 The Fourier Diffraction Theorem

4.2.4 Reconstruction and Backpropagation Algorithm

4.3 Holography

4.3.1 Liquid Surface Method

4.4 C-Scan Method

4.5 B-Scan Method

4.6 Acosutic Microscopy

References

Chapter 5 Time Reversal Acoustics

5.1 Introducton

5.2 Theory fo the Time Reversal (TR)Acoustics

5.2.1 Time Reversal Acoustics and Superresolution

5.3 Application of TR Acoustics to Medical Ultrasound Imaging

5.4 Application of TR Acoustics to Ultrasound Nondestructive Testing

5.4.1 Theory of TR Acoustics for Liquid-Solid Interface

5.4.2 Experimental Implementation of the TRM for Nondestructive Testing Works

5.4.3 Incoherent Summation

5.4.4 Time Record of Signals coming from a Speckle Noise Zone

5.4.5 The Iterative Technique

A. Iterative Process for a Zone containing a Hard-Alpha

B. Iterative Process as a Pure Speckle Noise Zone

5.5 Application of TR Acoustics to Landmine or Buried Object Detection

5.5.1 Introduction

5.5.2 Theory

5.5.3 Experimental Procedure

5.5.4 Experimental Setup

5.5.5 Wiener Filter

5.5.6 Experimental Results

5.6 Application of TR Acoustics to Underwater Acosutics

References

Chapter 6 Nonlinear Acoustical Imaging

6.1 Application of Chaos Theory to Acosutical Imaging

6.1.1 Nonlinear Problem encountered in Diffraction Tomography

6.1.2 Definition and History of Chaos

6.1.3 Definition of Fractal

6.1.4 The Link between Chaos and Fractals

6.1.5 The Fractal Nature of Breast Cancer

6.1.6 Types of Fractals

A.Non-Random Fractals

B.Random Fractals

C.Other Definitions

6.1.7 Fractal Approximation (FA)

6.1.8 Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA)

6.1.9 Growth Site Probability Distribution (GSPD)

6.1.10 Approximating the Scattered Field using GSPD

6.1.11 Discrete Helmholtz Wave Equation

6.1.12 Kaczmarz Algorithm

6.1.13 Hounsfield`s Method

6.1.14 Applying GSPD into Kaczmarz Algorithm

6.1.15 Fractal Algorithm using Frequency Domain Interpolation

6.1.16 Derivation of Fractal Algorithm `s Final Equation using Frequency Domain Interpolation

6.1.17 Simulation Results

6.1.18 Comparison between Born and Fractal Approximations

6.2 Non-Classical Nonlinear Acoustical Imaging

6.2.1 Introduction

6.2.2 Mechanisms of Harmonic Generation via CAN

A. Clapping Mechanism

B. Nonlinear Friction Mechanism

6.2.3 Nonlinear Resonance Modes

6.2.4 Experimental Studies on Non-Classical CAN Spectra

6.2.5 CAN Application for Nonlinear Acoustical Imaging and NDE

6.2.6 Conclusions

6.3 Modulation Method of Nonlinear Acosutical Imaging

6.3.1 Introduction

6.3.2 Principles of Modulation Acoustic Method

6.3.3 The Modulation Mode Method of Crack Location

6.3.4 Experimental Procedure of the Modulation Method for NDT

6.3.5 Experimental Procedures for the Modulation Mode Method

6.3.6 Conclusion

6.4 Harmonic Imaging

References

Chapter 7 High Frequencies Acoustical Imaging

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Transducers

7.3 Electronic Circuitry

7.4 Software

7.5 Applications of High Frequencies In Vivo Ultrasound Imaging System

7.6 System of 150 MHz Ultrasound Imaging of the Skin and the Eye

7.7 Signal Processing for the 150 MHz System

7.8 Electronic Circuitry of Acoustical Microscopy

7.8.1 Gated Signal and its Use in Acoustical Microscope

7.8.2 Quasi-Monochromatic Systems

7.8.3 Very Short Pulse Techniques

References

Chapter 8 Statistical Treatment of Acoustical Imaging

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Scattering by Inhomogeneities

8.3 Study of the Statistical Properties of the QWavefields

8.3.1 Fresnel Approximation or Nearfield Approximation

8.3.2 Farfield Imaging Condition (Fraunhofer approximation).

8.3.3 Correlation of Fluctuations

A. Correlation of the Amplitude and Phase Fluctuation at the Receiver

8.3.4 Quasi-Static Condition

8.3.5 The Time Autocorrelation of the Amplitude Fluctuations

8.3.6 Experimental Verifications

8.3.7 Application of Fluctuation Theory to the Diffraction Image of a Focusing System

8.3.8 Conclusion

8.4 Continuous Medium Approach of Statistical Treatment

8.4.1 Introduction

8.4.2 Parabolic Equation Theory

8.4.3 Assumption for the Refractive Index Fluctuation

8.4.4 Equation for the Averaged Field and General Solution

References

Chapter 9 Nondestructive Testing

9.1 Defects Characterization

9.2 Automatic Ultrasonic Testing (AUT)

9.2.1 Introduction

9.2.2 Testing Procedure

9.2.3 Example of a AUT System

9.2.4 Signal Processing and Automatic Defects and Features Classification in AUT

A. Signal Analysis and Enhancement

B. Enhancement by Cross Correlation

C. Enhancement by Zero-Phase Shift Filter

D. Enhancement by Averaging

E. Automatic Peak Detection Algorithm

9.3 Guided Waves used in Acoustical Imaging for NDT

9.4 Ultrasonic Techniques for Stress Measurement and Materials Studies

9.4.1 Introduction

9.4.2 Internal Stress Measurements

A. The Use of V(z) curve technique for Stress Measurement

9.4.3 V(z) curve Technique in the Characterization of Kissing Bond

9.5 Dry Transducer or Non-contact Transducer

9.5.1 Pitch/Catch Swept Method

9.5.2 Pitch/Catch Impulse Method

9.5.3 MIA Test Method

9.6 Phased Array Transducers

9.6.1 Introduction

9.6.2 Meaning of Phased Array

9.6.3 Principle of Ohased Array Ultrasonic Technology

9.6.4 Focal Laws

9.6.5 Basic Scanning and Imaging

9.6.6 Advantages of Phased Array Testing as compared with Conventional UT

References

Chapter 10 Medical Ultrasound Imaging

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Physical Principles of Sound Propagation

10.2.1 Propagation of Sound Waves in Solids

10.2.2 Contrast

10.3 Imaging Modes

10.3.1 BScan

A. Resolution

10.3.2 CScan

10.4 BScan Instrumentation

10.4.1 Manual Systems

10.4.2 Real Time Systems

10.4.3 Mechanical Scan

10.4.4 Electronic Scan

A.Linear Array

B. The Phased Array

10.5 CScan Instrumentation

10.5.1 Sokolov Tube

10.5.2 Ultrasonic Holography

10.6 Tissue Harmonic Imaging

10.6.1 Introduction

10.6.2 Principles of Tissue Harmonic Imaging

A. Physical Principles

a. Nonlinearity between Fundamental Amplitude and Harmonic Productions

b. Depth Dependence

B. Instrumentation Principles

10.6.3 Image Formation in Tissue Harmonics

A. Filtration

B. Single Line Pulse Inversion (PI)

C. Side-by-Side Phase Cancellation

D. Pulse Encoding

10.6.4 Tissue Harmonic Image Characteristics

A. Decreased Image Dynamic Range

B. Better Lateral Resolution. Reduced Slice Thickness

C. Artifacts

D. Worse Images in `Glass Bodies` Patients

E. Clinical Effects of Tissue Harmonic Imaging

10.6.5 Some Examples of Commercial Systems

10.7 Elasticity Imaging

10.7.1 Introduction

10.7.2 Comparison of Manual Palpation and Elasticity Imaging

A. Manual Palpation

B. Ultrasonic Elasticity Imaging

10.7.3 Choice of Force Stimulus and Imaging Modality

10.7.4 Physics of Elasticity Imaging

10.7.5 Imaging Formation Algorithm

10.7.6 Some Examples of Commercial Systems

A. ACUSON S2000 TM Ultrasound System

B. ACUSON Antares TM Ultrasound System

10.8 Colour Doppler Imaging

10.8.1 Doppler Ultrasound

10.8.2 Pulsed(gated) and spectral Doppler

10.8.3 Quantitative Doppler Techniques

10.8.4 Velocity Measurements

10.8.5 Spectral Doppler Waveforms Measurements

10.8.6 Volume Blood Flow Measurements

10.8.7 Colour Doppler

10.8.8 Newer Techniques

A. Power Doppler Imaging

10.9 Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound

10.9.1 Introduction

10.9.2 Bubble Echocardiogram

10.9.3 Microbubble Contrast Agents

A. General Features

B. Targeted Microbubbles

10.9.4 How it works

10.9.5 Applications

b. Blood Volume and Perfusion

a. Inflammation

10.10 3D Ultrasound Medical Imaging

10.10.1 Introduction

10.10.2 Elective 3D Ultrasound

A. Benefits of Elective 3D Ultrasound

B. Risks of 3D Ultrasound

C. Duration

D. Intensity

E. Frequency

F. Physical Effects

G. Medical Effects

10.10.3 Risk Reduction of 3D Ultrasound

10.10.4 Future Develppment

10.10.5 Regional Anesthesia

10.11 Development Trends

References

Chapter 11 Underwater Acoustical Imaging

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Principles of Underwater Acoustical Imaging System

11.2.1 Attenuation Loss

11.2.2 Propagation Theory

11.2.3 Reflection and Scattering from the Sea Surface

11.2.4 Reflection and Scattering from the Sea Bottom

11.2.5 Sea Bottom-Reflection Loss

11.2.6 Sound Channel

11.2.7 Comparison on Ray and Mode Theory

11.2.8 Principles of Some Underwater Acoustical Imaging Systems

11.3 Characteristics of Underwater Acosutical Imaging Systems

11.4 Imaging Modalities

11.4.1 Sonar Acoustical Imaging

11.4.2 Orthoscopic Acoustical Imaging

11.5 A Few Representative Underwater Acosutical Imaging Systems

11.5.1 Focused Acosutical Imaging System

11.5.2 Electronic Beam-Focused Underwater Acoustical Imaging System

(1) Delay and Sum Beamformer

(2) Phased Array Beamformer

(3) Correlation Beamformer

11.5.3 Holographic Acoustical Imaging

References

Chapter 12 Geophysical Exploration

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Application of Acoustical Holography to Seismic Imaging

12.3 Examples of Field Experiments

12.3.1 One -Dimensional Holographic Arrays

12.3.2 Two- Dimensional Holographic Arrays

A. Reciprocity Method

B. Crossed Linear Array

C. First-Arrival Holography

12.4 Laboratory Modelling

12.5 Techniques of Image Processing & Enhancement

12.5.1 Weak Signal Enhancement

12.5.2 Phase Constant Enhancement Technique

12.6 Computer Reconstruction

12.6.1 Removal of Conjugate Images

12.6.2 Fourier Transform Hologram

12.6.3 Examples of Computer Reconstruction

12.6.4 Backward Wave Propagation or Frequency Domain Migration

12.6.5 Correlation Holography

12.7 Other Applications of Seismic Holography

12.7.1 Monitoring Burning Fronts in Oil-Shale Retorts

12.8 Signal Processing in Seismic Holography

12.8.1 Velocity Filtering

12.8.2 Two-dimensional Fourier Transform Techniques

12.8.3 Tau-p Transform(SLANT STACK)

12.8.4 The Inverse Tau-p Transform

12.8.5 Examples of k-? and Tau-p Transforms

12.9 Applications of Diffraction Tomography to Seismic Imaging

12.9.1 Reconstruction Algorithms

12.9.2 Computer Simulations flr the Offset VSP Case

12.9.3 Conclusions

References

Chapter 13 Quantum Acoustical Imaging

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Optical Piezoelectric Trasnducers(OPT) for Generation of Nano-Acoustic Waves

13.3 Optical Detection of Nano-Acoustic Waves

13.4 Nanoimaging /Quantum Acoustical Imaging

13.5 Generation and Amplification of Terahertz Acoustic Waves

13.6 Theory of Electron Inversion and Phonon Amplification produced in the Active SL by Optical Pumping

13.7 Source for Quantum Acoustical Imaging

13.8 Phonons Entanglement for Quantum Acoustical Imaging

13.9 Applications of Quantum Acoustical Imaging

References

Chapter 14 Negative Refraction, Acoustical Metamaterials, Acoustical Cloaking

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Limitations of Veselago`s Theory

14.2.1 Introduction

14.2.2 Gauge Invariance of Homogeneous Electromagnetic Wave Equation

14.2.3 Gauge Invariance of Acoustic Field Equation

14.2.4 Acoustical Cloaking

14.2.5 Gauge Invariance of Nonlinear Homogeneous Acoustic Wave Equation

14.2.6 My Important Discovery of Negative Refraction is a Special Case of Coordinate Transformations

14.2.7 Conclusions

14.3 Multiple Scattering Approach to Perfect Acoustic Lens

14.4 Acoustical Cloaking

A. Introduction

B. Derivation of Transformation Acoustics

C. Application to Specific Example

14.5 Acoustic Metamaterial with Simultaneous negative Mass Density and Negative Bulk

Modulus

14.6 Acoustical Cloaking based on Nonlinear Coordinate Transformations

References

Chapter 15 New Acoustics based on Metamaterials 15.1 Introduction

15.2 New Acoustical and Acoustical Imaging

15.3 Background of Phononic Crystals

15.4 Theory of Phononic Crystals- The Multiple Scattering Theory (MST)

15.5 Negative Refraction derived from Gauge Invariance(Coordinate Transformations)

15.6 Reflection and Transmission of Sound Wave at the Interface of Two Media with Different Parities

15.6 Theory of Diffraction by Negative Inclusion

15.6.1 Formulation of Forward Problem of Diffraction Tomography

15.6.2 Moedling Diffraction Procedure in a Negative Medium

15.6.3 Results of Numericla Simulation

15.6.4 Points to take care of during Numerical Simulation

15.7 Scattering

15.8 New Elasticity

15.9 Conclusions

15.10 Comparison of the Significance of the Role Played by Gauge Theory and Multiple Scattering Theory

References

Chapter 16 Future Directions and Future technologies
Extra informatie: 
Hardback
426 pagina's
Januari 2012
974 gram
251 x 177 x 25 mm
Wiley-Blackwell us

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