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French, Hugh

Changing Cold Environments

A Canadian Perspective

€ 66.95

  • Comprehensive coverage of  the effects of global climate change on Canada’s cold environments.


    Taal / Language : English

    Inhoudsopgave:
    List of Contributors xi

    Preface xiii

    Glossary xv

    PART ONE SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF CANADA`S COLD ENVIRONMENTS 1

    1 Cold Canada and the Changing Cryosphere 3
    Hugh French and Olav Slaymaker

    1.1 Introduction 3

    1.2 The Cryosphere 4

    1.3 Cold Canada 10

    1.4 Cold Climates 15

    1.5 Arctic and Alpine Considerations 19

    1.6 Canada`s Physical Geography 21

    2 The Late Quaternary Glaciation of Northern Canada 26
    David Evans

    2.1 Introduction 26

    2.2 Landforms and the Late Quaternary Glaciations 26

    2.3 Late Quaternary Sea level Change and its Relationship to Glaciation History 39

    2.4 Late Quaternary Glaciation and Deglacial History 39

    2.5 Wider Implications of Canadian Arctic Ice Sheet Dynamics 42

    2.6 Holocene Glacial Events 44

    3 The Evolution of Polar Desert and Tundra Ecosystems 48
    Konrad Gajewski

    3.1 Introduction 48

    3.2 The Nature of the Environment 49

    3.3 Ecology of Arctic Plants 51

    3.4 Vegetation Zonation 53

    3.5 Arctic Oases 55

    3.6 Long term Evolution of Canadian Arctic Ecosystems 56

    3.7 The Quaternary 58

    3.8 Postglacial Climate and Vegetation Change in Arctic Canada 59

    4 Remote Sensing and Canadian Snow Climatology 66
    Richard Kelly

    4.1 Introduction 66

    4.2 The Importance of Snow in the Earth System 66

    4.3 Snow Measurements in Canada 67

    4.4 Remote Sensing of Snow 70

    4.5 Snow Variations Inferred from Remote Sensing Observations 77

    4.6 Discussion 82

    4.7 Conclusion 82

    PART TWO THE CHANGING CRYOSPHERE 87

    5 The Changing Climates 89
    Roger Barry and Mark Serreze

    5.1 Introduction 89

    5.2 Late Pliocene 89

    5.3 Quaternary History 90

    5.4 Postglacial Conditions 91

    5.5 The Last Two Millennia 92

    5.6 Recent Changes 94

    5.7 The Future 96

    6 Snow and Runoff: Processes, Sensitivity and Vulnerability 105
    Ming-Ko Woo and John Pomeroy

    6.1 Introduction 105

    6.2 Snow Accumulation 107

    6.3 Land Cover 109

    6.4 Snow Ablation 111

    6.5 Snowmelt Runoff Processes 113

    6.6 Streamflow 117

    6.7 Snowmelt Floods in Large Basins 118

    6.8 Snow Vulnerability 122

    7 Permafrost Distribution and Stability 126
    Chris Burn

    7.1 Introduction 126

    7.2 Distribution of Permafrost 130

    7.3 Thermal Regime of Permafrost 134

    7.4 Permafrost and Climate Change 136

    7.5 Conclusions 143

    8 Sea Ice in Canada 147
    David Barber and Jennifer Lukovich

    8.1 Introduction 147

    8.2 What is Sea Ice? 147

    8.3 The Physical Nature of Sea Ice 148

    8.4 Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Sea Ice 150

    8.5 Sea Ice and Climate Change 158

    8.6 Implications for Northern Communities, Economic Development and the Environment 160

    9 Lake and River Ice in Canada 163
    Terry Prowse

    9.1 Introduction 163

    9.2 Role in the Climate System 168

    9.3 Climatic Controls 168

    9.4 Historical Trends and Linkages to Climate 169

    9.5 Future Ice Regime Projections 172

    9.6 Implications of Ice Regime Changes 173

    PART THREE THE EVER-CHANGING SCENERY 183

    10 Climate Change and the Central Canadian Treeline 185
    Glen MacDonald

    10.1 Introduction 185

    10.2 The Central Canadian Treeline Zone Today 186

    10.3 Current Warming at the Central Canadian Treeline 188

    10.4 Response of the Central Canadian Treeline to Warming Temperatures 191

    11 Geomorphic Change in Northern Canada 200
    Hugh French

    11.1 Introduction 200

    11.2 Lessons from the Past 202

    11.3 Freezing, Thawing and Bedrock Instability 205

    11.4 Warming Permafrost 205

    11.5 Changes in Azonal Processes 213

    11.6 Geotechnical Implications of Warming Permafrost 216

    11.7 Conclusions 217

    12 Geomorphic Change in Canada`s Temperate Mountains 222
    Olav Slaymaker

    12.1 Introduction 222

    12.2 Present Morphology 223

    12.3 Spatial Variability of Ecology and Morphology 224

    12.4 Hydroclimate and Cryospheric Phenomena 228

    12.5 Rates and Kinds of Geomorphic Processes 234

    12.6 Disturbances Regimes and Landscape Transitions 240

    12.7 Conclusions 242

    13 Risk from Cold-climate Hazards in the Canadian Cordillera 247
    Jim Gardner

    13.1 Introduction 247

    13.2 Cold-climate Hazards 247

    13.3 Risk and Climate Variability 249

    13.4 Conclusions 264

    14 Societal Aspects of Changing Cold Environments 267
    Gita Laidler

    14.1 Introduction 267

    14.2 Cultural Pursuits and Indigenous Rights 268

    14.3 Local and Broader Implications of Changing Sea Ice 281

    14.4 Northern Governance 292

    14.5 Conclusions 294

    15 The Changing Canadian Cryosphere, Globalization and Global Environmental Change 301
    Olav Slaymaker and Hugh French

    15.1 Introduction 301

    15.2 The Question of Scale 302

    15.3 Adaptive Management 308

    15.4 Globalization 310

    15.5 Conclusion 310

    References 311

    Discussion Questions 312

    Some Useful Internet Sources 312

    Index 313
    Extra informatie: 
    Paperback / softback
    340 pagina's
    Januari 2011
    562 gram
    243 x 169 x 16 mm
    Wiley-Blackwell us

    Levertijd: 5 tot 11 werkdagen