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Franssila, Sami

Introduction to Microfabrication

€ 83.95

The first edition of this book published in 2004 and has proved to be both a valuable textbook and a handy desk reference. This new edition continues to provide students with an accessible guide to an important field. Fully updated, it has five new chapters that incorporate the recent developments in the field.


Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:
Preface to the First Edition

Preface to the Second Edition

Acknowledgements

 

1 Introduction

Substrates, Thin Films, Processes, Dimensions,

Devices, MOS Transistor, Cleanliness and Yield,

Industries, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

2 Micrometrology and Materials

Characterization

Microscopy and Visualization, Lateral and Vertical

Dimensions, Optical Techniques, Electrical

Measurements, Physical and Chemical Analyses,

Practical Issues with Micrometrology,

Measurements Everywhere, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

3 Simulation of Microfabrication Processes

Simulator Types, Levels of Simulation, The 1D

Simulators, The 2D Simulators, The 3D Simulators,

Other Simulation Needs in Microfabrication,

Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

4 Silicon

Silicon Material Properties, Silicon Crystal Growth,

Silicon Crystal Structure, Silicon Wafering Process,

Defects and Non-Idealities in Silicon Crystals,

Advanced Wafers, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

5 Thin-Film Materials and Processes

Thin Films vs. Bulk Materials, Physical Vapor

Deposition, Chemical Vapor Deposition, PECVD:

Plasma-Enhanced CVD, ALD: Atomic Layer

Deposition, Electrochemical Deposition (ECD),

Other Methods, Thin Films Over Topography: Step

Coverage, Stresses, Metallic Thin Films,

Polysilicon, Oxide and Nitride Thin Films, Polymer

Films, Advanced Thin Films, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

6 Epitaxy

Heteroepitaxy, Epitaxial Deposition, CVD

Homoepitaxy of Silicon, Doping of Epilayers,

Measurement of Epitaxial Deposition, Simulation of

Epitaxy, Advanced Epitaxy, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

7 Advanced Thin Films

General Features of Thin-Film Processes, Film

Growth and Structure, Thin-Film Structure

Characterization, Surfaces and Interfaces, Adhesion,

Two-Layer Films, Alloys and Doped Films,

Multilayer Films, Selective Deposition, Reacted

Films, Simulation of Deposition, Thickness Limits

of Thin Films, Exercises

References and Related Reading

8 Pattern Generation

Pattern Generators, Electron Beam Lithography,

Laser Pattern Generators, Photomask Fabrication,

Photomask Inspection, Defects and Repair,

Photomasks as Tools, Other Pattern Generation

Methods, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

9 Optical Lithography

Lithography Process Flow, Resist Chemistry, Resist

Application, Alignment and Overlay, Exposure,

Resist Profile, Resolution, Process Latitude, Basic

Pattern Shapes, Lithography Practice, Photoresist

Stripping, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

10 Advanced Lithography

Projection Optical Systems, Resolution of Projection

Optical Systems, Resists, Thin-Film Optics in

Resists, Lithography Over Steps, Optical Extensions

vi Contents

of Optical Lithography, Non-Optical Extension of

Optical Lithography, Lithography Simulation,

Lithography Triangles, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

11 Etching

Etch Mechanisms, Etching Profiles, Anisotropic Wet

Etching, Wet Etching, Plasma Etching (RIE),

Isotropic Dry Etching, Etch Masks, Non-Masked

Etching, Multistep and Multilayer Etching, Etch

Processes for Common Materials, Ion Beam

Etching, Etch Process Characteristics, Selecting

Etch Processes, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

12 Wafer Cleaning and Surface Preparation

Classes of Contamination, Chemical Wet Cleaning,

Physical Wet Cleaning, Rinsing and Drying, Dry

Cleaning, Particle Removal, Organics Removal,

Metal Removal, Contact Angle, Surface Preparation,

Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

13 Thermal Oxidation

Thermal Oxidation Process, Deal-Grove Oxidation

Model, Oxidation of Polysilicon, Oxide Structure,

Local Oxidation of Silicon, Stress and Pattern

Effects in Oxidation, Simulation of Oxidation,

Thermal Oxides vs. other Oxides, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

14 Diffusion

Diffusion Process, Diffusion Mechanisms, Doping

of Polysilicon, Doping Profiles in Diffusion,

Diffusion Applications, Simulation of Diffusion,

Diffusion at Large, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

15 Ion Implantation

The Implantation Process, Implant Applications,

Implant Damage and Damage Annealing, Tools for

Ion Implantation, Ion Implantation Simulation,

Implantation Further, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

16 CMP: Chemical-Mechanical Polishing

CMP Process and Tool, Mechanics of CMP,

Chemistry of CMP, Non-Idealities in CMP,

Monitoring CMP Processes, Applications of CMP,

CMP as a Whole, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

17 Bonding

Bonding Basics, Fusion Bonding Blanket Silicon

Wafers, Anodic Bonding, Metallic Bonding,

Adhesive Bonding, Layer Transfer and Temporary

Bonding, Bonding of Structured Wafers, Bond

Quality Measurements, Bonding for Packaging,

Bonding at Large, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

18 Polymer Microprocessing

Polymer Materials, Polymer Thermal Properties,

Thick-Resist Lithography, Molding Techniques,

Hot Embossing, Nanoimprint Lithography, Masters

for Replication, Processing on Polymers, Polymer

Bonding, Polymer Devices, Polymer Overview,

Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

19 Glass Microprocessing

Structure and Properties of Glasses, Glass

Substrates, General Processing Issues with Glasses,

Glass Etching, Glass Bonding, Glass Devices,

Specialty Glasses, Exercises

References and Further Reading

 

20 Anisotropic Wet Etching

Basic Structures on <100> Silicon, Etchants, Etch

Masks and Protective Coatings, Etch Rate and Etch

Stop, Front-Side Processed Structures, Convex

Corner Etching, Membrane Fabrication,

Through-Wafer Structures, <110> Etching, <111>

Silicon Etching, Comparison of <100>, <110>

and <111> Etching, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

21 Deep Reactive Ion Etching

RIE Process Capabilities, RIE Process Physics

and Chemistry, Deep Etching, Combining

Anisotropic and Isotropic DRIE, Microneedles and

Nozzles, Sidewall Quality, Pattern Size and Pattern

Density Effects, Etch Residues and Damage, DRIE

vs. Wet Etching, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

22 Wafer Engineering

Silicon Crystals, Gettering, Wafer Mechanical

Specifications, Epitaxial Wafers, SOI Wafers,

Bonding Mechanics, Advanced Wafers, Variety of

Wafers, Exercises

References and Further Reading

 

23 Special Processes and Materials

Substrates other than Silicon, Pattern Generation,

Patterning, Powder Blasting, Deposition, Porous

Silicon, Molding with Lost Mold, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

24 Serial Microprocessing

Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Processing, Focused

Electron Beam (FEB) Processing, Laser Direct

Writing, AFM Patterning, Ink Jetting, Mechanical

Structuring, Chemical and Chemomechanical

Machining Scaled Down, Conclusions,

Exercises

References and Further Reading

 

25 Process Integration

The Two Sides of the Wafer, Device Example 1:

Solar Cell, Device Example 2: Microfluidic Sieves,

Wafer Selection, Masks and Lithography, Design

Rules, Resistors, Device Example 3: PCR Reactor,

Device Example 4: Integrated Passive Chip,

Contamination Budget, Thermal Processes,

Metallization, Passivation and Packaging,

Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

26 MOS Transistor Fabrication

Polysilicon Gate CMOS, Polysilicon Gate CMOS:

10 ìm to 1ìm Generations, MOS Transistor

Scaling, CMOS from 0.8 ìm to 65nm, Gate

Module, SOI MOSFETs, Thin-Film Transistors,

Integrated Circuits, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

27 Bipolar Transistors

Fabrication Process of SBC Bipolar Transistor,

Advanced Bipolar Structures, Lateral Isolation,

BiCMOS Technology, Cost of Integration,

Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

28 Multilevel Metallization

Two-Level Metallization, Planarized Multilevel

Metallization, Copper Metallization, Dual

Damascene Metallization, Low-k Dielectrics,

Metallization Scaling, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

29 Surface Micromachining

Single Structural Layer Devices, Materials for

Surface Micromachining, Mechanics of

Free-Standing Films, Cantilever Structures,

Membranes and Bridges, Stiction, Multiple Layer

Structures, Rotating Structures, Hinged Structures,

CMOS Wafers as Substrates, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

30 MEMS Process Integration

Silicon Microbridges, Double-Sided Processing,

Membrane Structures, Piezoresistive Pressure

Sensor, Tilting and Bending Through-Wafer Etched

Structures, Needles and Tips, Channels and Nozzles,

Bonded Structures, Surface Micromachining

Combined with Bulk Micromachining, MEMS

Packaging, Microsystems, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

31 Process Equipment

Batch Processing vs. Single Wafer Processing,

Process Regimes: Temperature and Pressure, Cluster

Tools and Integrated Processing, Measuring

Fabrication Processes, Equipment Figures of Merit,

Simulation of Process Equipment, Tool Lifecycles,

Cost of Ownership, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

32 Equipment for Hot Processes

High-Temperature Equipment: Hot Wall vs. Cold

Wall, Furnace Processes, Rapid Thermal

Processing/Rapid Thermal Annealing, Furnaces vs.

RTP Systems, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

33 Vacuum and Plasmas

Vacuum Physics and Kinetic Theory of Gases,

Vacuum Production, Plasma Etching, Sputtering,

Residual Gas Incorporation into Deposited Film,

PECVD, Residence Time, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

34 CVD and Epitaxy Equipment

Deposition Rate, CVD Rate Modeling, CVD

Reactors, CVD with Liquid Sources, Silicon CVD

Epitaxy, Epitaxial Reactors, Control of CVD

Reactions, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

35 Cleanrooms

Cleanroom Construction, Cleanroom Standards,

Cleanroom Subsystems, Environment, Safety and

Health (ESH), Cleanroom Operating Procedures,

Mini-Environments, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

36 Yield and Reliability

Yield Definitions and Formulas, Yield Models,

Yield Ramping, Package Reliability, Metallization

Reliability, Dielectric Defects and Quality,

Stress Migration, Die Yield Loss,

Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

37 Economics of Microfabrication

Silicon, IC Costs and Prices, IC Industry, IC Wafer

Fabs, MEMS Industry, Flat-Panel Display Industry,

Solar Cells, Magnetic Data Storage, Short Term and

Long Term, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

38 Moore`s Law and Scaling Trends

From Transistor to Integrated Circuit, Historical

Development of IC Manufacturing, MOS Scaling,

Departure from Planar Bulk Technology,

Memories, Lithography Future, Moore`s Law,

Materials Challenges, Statistics and Yield, Limits of

Scaling, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

39 Microfabrication at Large

New Devices, Proliferation of MEMS,

Microfluidics, BioMEMS, Bonding and 3D

Integration, IC-MEMS Integration, Microfabricated

Devices for Microfabrication, Exercises

References and Related Reading

 

Appendix A Properties of Silicon

Appendix B Constants and Conversion

Factors

Appendix C Oxide and Nitride Thickness

by Color

Index

Extra informatie: 
Hardback
534 pagina's
Januari 2010
1187 gram
252 x 198 x 34 mm
Wiley-Blackwell us
Levertijd: 5 tot 11 werkdagen