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Gregory H. Fox

Humanitarian Occupation

€ 183.65



Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:
Acknowledgments xi
Introduction 1
Section I Historical antecedents
1 The historical origins of humanitarian occupation I: governance in service of outsiders
17
I. Origins in the nineteenth century
19
II. Territories administered as a result of the 1919 settlement
20
III. League of Nations mandates
23
A. Fashioning international authority
23
B. The mandatories` governance obligations
26
C. The locus of sovereignty debate
28
IV. United Nations trusteeship territories
33
V. Conclusions
39
2 Historical origins of humanitarian occupation II: internationalized territory in service of insiders
41
I. The rise of post-conflict reconstruction
45
II. Common tasks and objectives
48
A. Territorial integrity
51
B. Democratic politics
52
C. Human rights
55
III. Centrality of consent
58
A. The role of consent in post-conflict missions
59
B. Actual consent
64
C. Constructed consent
68
IV. Conclusions
69
3 Full international governance
72
I. The Bosnia mission
74
A. Following the territorial imperative
74
B. Creating consent
76
C. The Dayton model of statehood
78
II. The Kosovo operation
84
A. The genesis of the conflict and early international involvement
84
B. Escalating international involvement
87
C. The Rambouillet conference
89
D. War and peace
91
E. The interim international administration
93
F. Final status negotiations
95
G. Observations
97
III. The East Timor mission
98
A. From voting to violence
98
B. Pressure to internationalize
100
C. The UNTAET mandate
102
D. United Nations statehood?
103
IV. The Eastern Slavonia mission
106
V Conclusions
110
Section II Why humanitarian occupation?
4 Rejected models of statehood
115
I. Introducing the policy options
118
II. Legal constraints on exclusionary nationalism
171
A. No legal support for homogeneity achieved through murder, subordination or forcible conversion
B. No legal support for secession or partition
125
1. The argument for separation.
125
2. The rejection in practice
126
3. Procedural limitations and transaction costs
132
4. Negotiated partition
134
C. No legal support for mass population movements
136
III. Conclusion: what remains? The politics of inclusion
140
5 Constructing the liberal state
142
I. The stubborn persistence of a state-centered order
143
A. The empirical claim
144
B. The normative claim
148
II. Norms of governance
154
A. The mainstreaming of democracy promotion
154
B. Procedural versus substantive democracy
157
III. Elections
162
IV. Human rights
167
V. Conclusions
172
Section III Legal justifications
6 Conventional legal justifications
177
I. First legal framework: consent to humanitarian occupation
177
A. The coercion problem
177
B. The prohibition on coerced treaties
179
C. The humanitarian occupation agreements
181
D. Potential complications
188
1. The nature of the coercion
188
2. The nature of the agreement
192
3. Justifiable force?
195
E. Conclusion
200
II. Second legal framework: Security Council fiat
200
A. Limits on Council authority within the Charter
201
B. Limits on Council authority outside the Charter: jus cogens
205
1. The self-determination claim
205
2. Difficulties with jus cogens limitations
211
3. An alternative methodology: implied consent
214
III. Conclusion
217
7 The international law of occupation
218
I. Applicability of occupation law to multilateral humanitarian occupations
222
A. UN ratification of humanitarian law treaties
223
B. The UN and the customary law of occupation
225
C. The nature of UN customary law obligations
230
II. Is humanitarian occupation fundamentally inconsistent with occupation law?
233
A. The prohibition against altering legal and political institutions in the occupied territory: the conservationist principle
233
B. Limited exceptions to the conservationist principle
237
1. Military necessity
237
2. Obligations imposed by the Fourth Geneva Convention
238
C. Broader challenges to the conservationist principle
242
1. A reformist reading of occupation law
242
a. Looking to international standards
242
b. Consistency with international human rights norms
249
2. Is the conservationist principle an anachronism?
249
III. Two transformative occupations: challenging the conservationist principle
255
A. The occupation of Germany
255
B. The Iraq occupation
259
1. Social engineering in Iraq
259
2. Did the Security Council endorse a `transformative occupation`?
263
3. Resolution 1483 as precedent
269
IV. Conclusions
270
8 Reforming the law: the Security Council as legislator
273
I. Transcending state-centric norms
274
A. Normative origins
275
B. The reciprocal nature of state-centric norms
279
C. State-centric norms and a collective agenda
285
D. Lack of adjudicatory mechanisms
286
II. Security Council legislation
288
A. A distinct competence
289
B. Council legislation in practice
290
C. Legitimating legislative acts
294
1. Subjective element: norms and state interests
295
2. Objective element: supportive practice
299
III. Conclusions
303
Conclusions 305
Index 309
Extra informatie: 
Hardback
336 pagina's
Januari 2008
640 gram
229 x 152 x 25 mm
CAMBRIDGE UNIV PR us


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