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Environmental and Human Health Impacts of Nanotechnology

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Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding field receiving extensive funding and development worldwide. A large number of novel processes occcur on the nanoscale, and the unique pr

Taal / Language : English




Chapter 1 Overview of Nanoscience in the Environment

M. Baalousha and J.R. Lead

1.1 Introduction

1.2 History

1.3 Definitions

1.4 Investment and International Efforts

1.5 Development: Four Anticipated Generations

1.6 Applications of Nanotechnology

1.7 Potential Benefits of Nanotechnology 

1.8 Potential Adverse Effects of Nanomaterials

1.9 Classification

1.10 Sources of Nanomaterials in the Environment

1.11 Properties of Nanomaterials

1.12 Nanomaterial Structure Toxicity Relationship

1.13 Environmental Fate and Behaviour of Nanomaterials

1.14 Potential for Human Exposure

1.15 Detection and Characterization of Nanomaterials

1.16 Issues to be Addressed

1.17 Conclusion

1.18 References

Chapter 2 Nanomaterials: Properties, Preparation and Applications

Paul Christian

2.1 Overview

2.2 Introduction

2.3 Nanoparticle Architecture

2.4 Particle Properties

2.5 Nanoparticle Preparation

2.6 Applications of Nanoparticles and Nanotechnology

2.7 Implication for Environmental Issues

2.8 Conclusions

2.9 References

Chapter 3 Size/Shape Property Relationships of Non Carbonaceous Inorganic Nanoparticles and Their Environmental Implications

Deborah M. Aruguete, Juan Liu and Michael F. Hochella, Jr

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Inorganic Nanoparticle Anatomy

3.3 Redox Chemistry of Nanoparticles

3.4 Size Effects in Nanoparticle Sorption Processes

3.5 Nanoparticle Fate: Dissolution and Solid State Cation Movement

3.6 Effect of Nanoparticle Aggregation on Physical and Chemical Properties

3.7 Environmental Implications: General Discussion, Recommendations and Outlook

3.8 References

Chapter 4 Natural Colloids and Nanoparticles in Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments

M. Baalousha, J.R. Lead and F.v.d. Kammer and Th. Hofmann

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Definition

4.3 Major Types of Environmental Colloids

4.4 Intrinsic Properties of Environmental Colloidal Particles

4.5 Interaction Forces Between Colloidal Particles

4.6 Fate and Behaviour of Colloids in Aquatic Systems

4.7 Fate and Behaviour of Colloids and Nanoparticles in Porous Media

4.8 Conclusion

4.9 References

Chapter 5 Atmospheric Nanoparticles

Aurélie Charron and Roy M. Harrison

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Sources of Atmospheric Nanoparticles

5.3 Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Nanoparticles

5.4 Fate and Behaviour of Atmospheric Nanoparticles

5.5 Atmospheric Concentrations

5.6 Measurement Methods for Atmospheric Nanoparticles

5.7 Conclusions

5.8 References

Chapter 6 Analysis and Characterization of Manufactured Nanoparticles in Aquatic Environments

Martin Hassellöv and Ralf Kaegi

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Nanoparticle Analysis and Characterization Methods

6.3 Analytical Test Strategy in NP Exposure Assessment

6.4 Conclusions

6.5 Acknowledgements

6.6 References

7. Ecotoxicology of Manufactured Nanoparticles

Simon C. Apte, Nicola J. Rogers and Graeme E. Batley

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Physico Chemical Transformation of Nanoparticles

7.3 Mechanisms of Nanoparticle Toxicity in the Environment

7.4 Development of Valid/Realistic Toxicity Testing Protocols

7.5 Review of Ecotoxicity Studies

7.6 General Conclusions and Future Directions

7.7 References

8. Exposure to Nanoparticles

Robert J. Aitken, Karen S. Galea, C. Lang Tran and John W. Cherrie

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Physical Characteristics and Properties of Nanoparticles

8.3 Nanoparticle Exposure

8.4 Control of Exposure

8.5 Discussion

8.6 References

9. Human Toxicology and Effects of Nanoparticles

Vicki Stone, Martin Clift and Helinor Johnston

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Ultrafine Particle Toxicology

9.3 Engineered Nanoparticles

9.4 Relating Physico Chemical Properties to Toxicity; Structure: Activity Relationships

9.5 Suggestions for Future Study Designs

9.6 Conclusions

9.7 Abbreviations

9.8 References

10. Risk Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials

Sophie A. Rocks, Simon J. Pollard, Robert A. Dorey, Paul T. C. Harrison, Len S. Levy, Richard D. Handy, John F. Garrod and Richard Owen

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Risk Assessment Process

10.3 Nanomaterials Issues for Risk Assessment

10.4 Assembling Evidence for Safety and Intervention

10.5 International Case Studies

10.6 Data Gaps in Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

10.7 Summary

10.8 References

Extra informatie: 
456 pagina's
Januari 2009
926 gram
254 x 177 x 37 mm
Wiley-Blackwell gb

Levertijd: 5 tot 11 werkdagen