Originally put together by the International Biological Programme (IBP) and published in its first edition in 1971, this popular book is now in it`s 4th edition. The benthos is the area at the bottom of the sea (or a lake) and the term is often used to mean all the plants and animals living there.
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Contributors Dedication Preface to the Fourth Edition Acknowledgements Chapter 1 Design and Analysis in Benthic Surveys in Environmental Sampling Anthony J. Underwood and Maura G. Chapman 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Variability in benthic populations 1.3 Appropriate replication Appropriate spatial replication Appropriate temporal replication 1.4 Size of sampling unit 1.5 Independence in sampling 1.6 Multivariate measures of assemblages 1.7 Transformations and scales of measurement 1.8 Data-checking and quality control 1.9 Detecting environmental impacts as statistical interactions 1.10 Precautionary principles and errors in interpretations 1.11 Precision and the size of samples 1.12 Gradients and hierarchies in sampling 1.13 Combining results from different places or times 1.14 Conclusions Acknowledgements References Chapter 2 Characterising the Physical Properties of Seabed Habitats Andrew J. Kenny and Ian Sotheran 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Remote acoustic methods for surveying the seabed Background Echo-sounders (single beam systems) Acoustic ground discrimination systems based on single beam echo-sounder Swathe bathymetry 2.3 Particle (grain) size analysis Sample collection and storage Sediment grade scales Analytical techniques Presentation and analysis of grain size data 2.4 Other important sediment properties Bulk and dry density, water content and porosity Organic matter content Chlorophyll EPS carbohydrate Temperature Eh and pH In Situ Sediment Characterisation Methods Disclaimer References Chapter 3 Imaging Techniques Chris J. Smith and Heye Rumohr 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Acoustic imaging Acoustic ground discriminating systems Sidescan sonar Swathe bathymetry 3.3 Video Underwater video camera systems Lenses Housings Data transmission Format Storage media Power supply Video monitors Illumination Calibration and measurement 3.4 Photography 3.5 Carrier platforms Diving Drop frames Specialised towed platforms Remotely operated vehicles Autonomous underwater vehicles Manned submersibles Navigation and positioning of the carrier platform Data acquisition and processing 3.6 Special applications Sediment profile imagery Laser technologies Application of medical technologies 3.7 Laboratory imaging 3.8 Image analysis 3.9 Afternote References Chapter 4 Diving Colin Munro 4.1 Diving systems SCUBA Remotely supplied systems Breathing gas and supply systems 4.2 Saturation diving and underwater habitats 4.3 Data collection and recording Slate or notepad and pencil Voice recording Image recording Video systems 4.4 Underwater site marking and relocation General considerations Air drills and underwater fasteners Acoustic pingers and receivers 4.5 Sampling methods Corers Suction samplers Yabby pumps and slurp guns Scrapers 4.6 Other study techniques Resin casting 4.7 Survey methods Manta tows Transect and quadrat surveys Plotless and rapid survey techniques Fish survey techniques References Chapter 5 Macrofauna Techniques Anastasios Eleftheriou and Derek C. Moore 5.1 Littoral observation and collection Position fixing and levelling on the shore 5.2 Remote collection Trawls Bottom sledges Dredges Semi-quantitative estimates with trawl and dredge Anchor dredges Grabs Box samplers and corers Suction samplers Other methods of sampling 5.3 Working sampling gear at sea Continental shelf Recovery of lost gear 5.4 Efficiency of benthos sampling gear Dredges and trawls Grabs Corers Comparative efficiency 5.5 Choice of a sampler 5.6 Treatment and sorting of samples Initial treatment Preservation Subsequent sorting 5.7 Data recording Acknowledgements References Chapter 6 Meiofauna Techniques Paul J. Somerfield and Richard M. Warwick 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Sample collection Intertidal sediments Subtidal sediments Secondary substrata 6.3 Fixation and preservation 6.4 Sample processing Extraction Sediment Secondary substrata 6.5 Storage and preservation 6.6 Sample splitting 6.7 Examination and counting Sorting Preparation for microscopy Counting Measurement 6.8 Biomass determination 6.9 Cultivation of marine and brackish-water meiobenthos 6.10 Experimental techniques References Chapter 7 Deep-Sea Benthic Sampling Alan J. Jamieson, Ben Boorman and Daniel O.B. Jones 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Sampling from research vessels Deployment methods Tracking, monitoring and positioning 7.3 Collecting animals from the deep-sea floor Trawling Epibenthic sleds Traps Suction samplers 7.4 Collecting sediment from the deep-sea floor Grabs Box corers Tube corers ROV corers 7.5 Imaging the deep-sea floor Imaging survey design Photographic transects ROV imaging AUV imaging Time-lapse imaging Interpretation of images 7.6 Biogeochemistry of the deep-sea floor Benthic incubation chambers Sediment profiling systems 7.7 In situ manipulative experiments 7.8 Future developments Acknowledgements Abbreviations References Chapter 8 Measuring the Flow of Energy and Matter in Marine Benthic Animal Populations Jan van der Meer, Thomas Brey, Carlo Heip, Peter M.J. Herman, Tom Moens and Dick van Oevelen 8.1 Introduction State variables and units of measurement 8.2 Energy and mass budgets of individual organisms Ratios or ‘efficiencies’ Energy flux modelling 8.3 Methods for estimating the energy budget of an individual organism Mass, size, chemical composition and energy content Ingestion, absorption and defaecation Excretion Respiration Growth Reproductive output Regeneration Product formation 8.4 From the individual to the population Secondary production 8.5 Community-level measurements and modelling Community-level activity Community-level mass transfer Community-level modelling References Chapter 9 Phytobenthos Techniques Hans Kautsky 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Phytobenthic communities Guidelines for the study of phytobenthic communities Data collection 9.3 Overview of methods for sampling phytobenthos 9.4 Transect line techniques Overview of transect techniques Recommended ICES method SCUBA transect estimates (ICES method) Video transect method Continuous observation methods Photo frames 9.5 Other underwater surveying methods The manta tow technique Diver-propulsion vehicle technique Other underwater video techniques Remotely operated vehicles (see Chapter ) Echo-sounding, sidescan sonar (see Chapter ) 9.6 Other surveying techniques Satellite imagery Aerial photography Laser scanning techniques 9.7 Conclusion Appendix Short review of methods used for monitoring in Europe and overseas References Index Colour plate section Colour plate section
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