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Milind W. Dawande

Throughput Optimization in Robotic Cells

€ 258.45

Throughput Optimization In Robotic Cells provides practitioners, researchers, and students with up-to-date algorithmic results on sequencing of robot moves and scheduling of p


Taal / Language : English

Inhoudsopgave:
Preface xv
1. ROBOTIC CELLS IN PRACTICE
1
1.1 Cellular Manufacturing
2
1.2 Robotic Cell Flowshops
3
1.3 Throughput Optimization
7
1.4 Historical Overview
9
1.5 Applications
11
2. A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR ROBOTIC CELLS AND NOTATION
15
2.1 Machine Environment
15
2.1.1 Number of Machines
15
2.1.2 Number of Robots
16
2.1.3 Types of Robots
17
2.1.4 Cell Layout
17
2.2 Processing Characteristics
17
2.2.1 Pickup Criterion
17
2.2.2 Travel-Time Metric
18
2.2.3 Number of Part-Types
20
2.3 Objective Function
20
2.4 An α|β|γ Classification for Robotic Cells
20
2.5 Cell Data
24
2.5.1 Processing Times
24
2.5.2 Loading and Unloading Times
24
2.5.3 Notations for Cell States and Robot Actions
25
3. CYCLIC PRODUCTION
29
3.1 Operating Policies and Dominance of Cyclic Solutions
29
3.2 Cycle Times
34
3.2.1 Waiting Times
34
3.2.2 Computation of Cycle Times
35
3.2.3 Lower Bounds on Cycle Times
39
3.3 Optimal 1-Unit Cycles
40
3.3.1 Special Cases
40
3.3.2 General Cases: Constant Travel-Time Cells
43
3.3.2.1 Optimization over Basic Cycles
51
3.3.3 General Cases: Additive and Euclidean Travel-Time Cells
61
3.4 Calculation of Makespan of a Lot
63
3.4.1 A Graphical Approach
63
3.4.2 Algebraic Approaches
64
3.5 Quality of 1-Unit Cycles and Approximation Results
65
3.5.1 Additive Travel-Time Cells
66
3.5.1.1 Pyramidal Cycles
68
3.5.1.2 A 1.5-Approximation Algorithm
68
3.5.1.3 A 10/7-Approximation for Additive Cells
74
3.5.2 Constant Travel-Time Cells
87
3.5.2.1 A 1.5-Approximation Algorithm
89
3.5.3 Euclidean Travel-Time Cells
94
4. DUAL-GRIPPER ROBOTS
101
4.1 Additional Notation
102
4.2 Cells with Two Machines
104
4.3 A Cyclic Sequence for m,-Machine Dual-Gripper Cells
107
4.4 Dual-Gripper Cells with Small Gripper Switch Times
114
4.5 Comparing Dual-Gripper and Single-Gripper Cells
116
4.6 Comparison of Productivity: Computational Results
122
4.7 Efficiently Solvable Cases
128
4.8 Single-Gripper Cells with Output Buffers at Machines
131
4.9 Dual-Gripper Robotic Cells: Constant Travel Time
141
4.9.1 Lower Bounds and Optimal Cycles: m-Machine Simple Robotic Cells
143
4.9.2 One-Unit Cycles
144
4.9.3 Multi-Unit Cycles
146
5. PARALLEL MACHINES
153
5.1 Single-Gripper Robots
154
5.1.1 Definitions
154
5.1.2 k-Unit Cycles and Blocked Cycles
156
5.1.2.1 Structural Results for k-Unit Cycles
156
5.1.2.2 Blocked Cycles
157
5.1.3 LCM Cycles
165
5.1.4 Practical Implications
169
5.1.4.1 Optimal Cycle for a Common Case
169
5.1.4.2 Fewest Machines Required to Meet Timelines
171
5.2 Dual-Gripper Robots
171
5.2.1 Lower Bound on Per Unit Cycle Time
172
5.2.2 An Optimal Cycle
175
5.2.3 Improvement from Using a Dual-Gripper Robot or Parallel Machines
180
5.2.3.1 Installing a Dual-Gripper Robot in a Simple Robotic Cell
181
5.2.3.2 Installing Parallel Machines in a Single-Gripper Robot Cell
182
5.2.3.3 Installing a Dual-Gripper Robot in a Single-Gripper Robotic Cell with Parallel Machines
183
5.2.3.4 An Illustration on Data from Implemented Cells
187
6. MULTIPLE-PART-TYPE PRODUCTION: SINGLE-GRIPPER ROBOTS
191
6.1 MPS Cycles and CRM Sequences
192
6.2 Scheduling Multiple Part-Types in Two-Machine Cells
194
6.3 Scheduling Multiple Part-Types in Three-Machine Cells
206
6.3.1 Cycle Time Derivations
207
6.3.2 Efficiently Solvable Special Cases
211
6.4 Steady-State Analyses
216
6.4.1 Reaching Steady State for the Sequence CRM(π2)
217
6.4.2 Reaching Steady State for the Sequence CRM(π6)
225
6.4.3 A Practical Guide to Initializing Robotic Cells
229
6.5 Intractable Cycles for Three-Machine Cells
231
6.5.1 MPS Cycles with the Sequence CRM(π2)
231
6.5.2 MPS Cycles with the Sequence CRM(π6)
238
6.5.3 Complexity of Three-Machine Robotic Cells
244
6.6 Scheduling Multiple Part-Types in Large Cells
247
6.6.1 Class U: Schedule Independent Problems
250
6.6.2 Class V1: Special Cases of the TSP
251
6.6.3 Class V2: NP-Hard TSP Problems
253
6.6.4 Class W: NP-Hard Non-TSP Problems
264
6.6.5 Overview
268
6.7 Heuristics for Three-Machine Problems
270
6.7.1 A Heuristic Under the Sequence CRM(π2)
270
6.7.2 A Heuristic Under the Sequence CRM(π6)
273
6.7.3 Computational Testing
274
6.7.4 Heuristics for General Three-Machine Problems
276
6.8 Heuristics for Large Cells
281
6.9 The Cell Design Problem
284
6.9.1 Forming Cells
285
6.9.2 Buffer Design
288
6.9.3 An Example
292
6.9.4 Computational Testing
293
7. MULTIPLE-PART-TYPE PRODUCTION: DUAL-GRIPPER ROBOTS
297
7.1 Two-Machine Cells: Undominated CRM Sequences
300
7.2 Two-Machine Cells: Complexity
306
7.2.1 Cycle Time Calculation
306
7.2.2 Strong NP-Completeness Results
312
7.2.3 Polynomially Solvable Problems
318
7.3 Analyzing Two-Machine Cells with Small Gripper Switch Times
319
7.4 A Heuristic for Specific CRM Sequences
324
7.4.1 A Performance Bound for Heuristic Hard-CRM
325
7.5 A Heuristic for Two-Machine Cells
339
7.6 Comparison of Productivity: Single-Gripper Vs. Dual-Gripper Cells
340
7.7 An Extension to m-Machine Robotic Cells
342
8. MULTIPLE-ROBOT CELLS
349
8.1 Physical Description of a Multiple-Robot Cell
350
8.2 Cycles in Multiple-Robot Cells
352
8.3 Cycle Times
354
8.4 Scheduling by a Heuristic Dispatching Rule
357
8.5 Computational Results
358
8.6 Applying an LCM Cycle to Implemented Cells
361
9. NO-WAIT AND INTERVAL ROBOTIC CELLS
363
9.1 No-Wait Robotic Cells
363
9.2 Interval Pick-up Robotic Cells
369
10. OPEN PROBLEMS 371
10.1 Simple Robotic Cells
371
10.2 Simple Robotic Cells with Multiple Part Types
376
10.3 Robotic Cells with Parallel Machines
376
10.4 Stochastic Data
377
10.5 Dual-Gripper Robots
377
10.6 Flexible Robotic Cells
378
10.7 Implementation Issues
378
10.7.1 Using Local Material Handling Devices
378
10.7.2 Revisiting Machines 379 Appendices
Appendix A 383
A.1 1-Unit Cycles
383
A.1.1 1-Unit Cycles in Classical Notation
384
A.1.2 1-Unit Cycles in Activity Notation
385
Appendix B 387
B.1 The Gilmore-Gomory Algorithm for the TSP
387
B.1.1 The Two-Machine No-Wait Flowshop Problem
387
B.1.2 Formulating a TSP
388
B.1.3 The Gilmore-Gomory Algorithm
389
B.2 The Three-Machine No-Wait Flowshop Problem as a TSP
394
Copyright Permissions 409
Index 413
Extra informatie: 
Hardback
417 pagina's
Januari 2007
748 gram
235 x 159 x 25 mm
Springer-Verlag GmbH us

Levertijd: 5 tot 11 werkdagen