Comprehension of the theories of aging requires rudimentary knowledge of oxidation and reduction reactions, protein function, cell organelles, mitosis, acquired immunity, and evolution, among other basic biological concepts.
Taal / Language : English
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BIOLOGICAL AGING
This chapter introduces the student to aging by way of a discussion of life expectancy, components of longevity, issues with defining aging, and overview of theories of aging
A. Beginnings of biogerontology
B. Reasons for increased life expectancy
C. Characteristics of aging
D. Components of longevity
E. Theories of aging overview
Chapter 2 MEASUREMENTS, MODELS and BIOMARKERS OF AGING
This chapter presents a critique of the main measurements and models (including man) used to generate data on age changes. The controversial topic of biomarkers is introduced.
A. Scientific method
B. Measurements cross sectional/longitudinal study designs
C. Models description, advantages and disadvantages, derived insights
Chapter 3 - AGING IN MACROMOLECULES
This chapter introduces the concept of structure/function in molecules, describes the basic building blocks of amino acids, nucleotides, sugars, fatty acids and the macromolecules that are assembled from them. It describes the degenerative changes in macromolecular structure and function and the current theories delineating the proposed damage mediators.
A. Structure/function of molecules
1. Overview: amino acids (proteins), nucleotides (nucleic acids), sugars (polysaccharides) and fatty acids (lipids)
2. Importance of macromolecular structure
3. Structure-functions of molecules/macromolecules
B. Aging in macromolecules
C. Oxidative stress theories
Chapter 4 - AGING IN CELLS
This chapter describes the organelles of the cell and their basic functions. It discusses the age changes in each organelle and associated aging theories and presents the major cellular events of cell senescence, apoptosis and autophagy.
A. The cell
B. Aging in organelles
C. Cellular senescence; observations and theories
D. Cell death choices apoptosis, necrosis age changes
E. Relation of cellular aging to pathologies of aging
Chapters 5-13 AGING IN ORGAN SYSTEMS
These chapters provide basic descriptions of the structure/function of the tissues/organs. A discussion of the major age changes is given with a view to distinguishing between those produced environmentally (where intervention is possible) and those that occur via intrinsic age changes (unlikely to be willfully changed).
Chapter 5 AGING IN SKIN AND ADIPOSE TISSUE
This chapter focuses on intrinsic and extrinsic aging, and effects of UVA and UVB. The aging effect on repositioning of adipose tissue is also presented.
A. Basic Structure/Function of Skin
B. Major age changes - Extrinsic and Intrinsic
C. Consequences of age changes
D. Ways to minimize aging in the skin
E. Aging of adipose tissue changes in body composition
Chapter 6 - AGING IN SKELETAL MUSCLES AND BONE
This chapter discusses structure/function of skeletal muscles, causes of sarcopenia and dynapenia and beneficial effect of exercise and adequate protein intake. The skeletal system is discussed in terms of remodeling and modeling and the consequences of these processes.
A. Basic Structure/Function of Skeletal Muscle
B. Age Changes: sarcopenia; dynapenia
C. Structure/Function of the Bones
D. Age Changes in remodeling/modeling; osteopenia
Chapter 7 - AGING IN THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
This chapter discusses the structure/function of the cardiovascular system and emphasizes the important of endothelial dysfunction in the aging process. It introduces the working hypothesis of abdominal adiposity affecting chronic sympathetic nerve stimulation and its consequences.
B. Age Changes in Structure/Function; heart, blood vessels, reflexes
C. Interventions for health maintenance
CHAPTER 8 AGING IN THE PULMONARY SYSTEM
This chapter presents the structure/function of the pulmonary system. It discusses the major age changes of increased airway resistance, decreased thoracic chest compliance and reduction of active lung tissue. Consequences of pulmonary aging and the means to their reduction are described.
A. Structure/Function of the lungs, chest cavity and airways
B. Age Changes in Structure/Function
C. Consequence of age changes
D. Interventions for healthy aging
Chapter 9 AGING IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
This chapter discusses the brain and spinal cord in general terms, describes current methods of structure/function measurements, the many issues encountered in CNS studies and the theory of neuroplasticity.
A. Structure/Function of Brain and Spinal Cord
B. Aging of the Brain
1. Critical Issues
2. Structural Changes
3. Functional Changes
Chapter 10 AGING IN SENSORY SYSTEM
This chapter describes aging of sensory receptors-pathways perceiving light, sound waves, chemicals (smell, pain), pressure (proprioception), and temperature in terms of changes in threshold, reaction time and discrimination. Loss of the accommodation reflex (presbyopia), dark/light adaption reflex and hearing loss (presbycusis) are emphasized.
A. General principles related to sensory stimuli
B. Sensory Organs structure/function
C. Age changes, causes and consequences
1. Presbyopia; senile miosis
3. Smell, taste, proprioception
D. Ways to minimize aging in sensory organs
Chapter 11 AGING IN EXCRETORY AND GI SYSTEMS
This chapter describes changes in structure/function of the renal, urogenital and gastrointestinal system. Consequences of these changes are discussed.
Chapter 12 AGING OF NEUROENDOCRINE AXIS AND OTHER ENDOCRINE GLANDS
This chapter describes the structure/function of the hypothalamic pituitary axis and its dysregulation with age. Menopause, altered stress response and loss of growth hormone are emphasized. The age changes are discussed in light of the Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging. Aging of other endocrine glands (pancreas, pineal and parathyroid) are included.
A. Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Endocrine Gland Axis
B. Disruption of Neuroendocrine Control with Age
3. Thyroid Axis
4. Adrenal Axis
5. Growth hormone
C. Endocrine Glands separate from Neuroendocrine Axis
1. Parathyroid Gland
3. Pineal Gland
D. Neuroendocrine theory of aging
Chapter 13 AGING IN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
This chapter discusses the basic components and function of the immune system, the Immunological Theory of Aging and the consequences of declining immune function.
B. Structure/function of the immune system
1. Innate immunity barriers, phagocytic cells, pH, protective enzymes
2. Acquired immunity thymus, lymph nodes, T-cell, B-cell, accessory cells, antibodies, mediators
C. Aging of the immune system
1. Thymic atrophy
2. Dysregulation (Immunosenescence)
D. Consequences/issues of immunosenescence
1. Poor response to new antigens
2. Increased incidence of malignancies
3. Increase in autoimmunity
4. Re-emergence of latent viruses
E. Immunological Theory of aging
Chapter 14 DIETARY RESTRICTION, LIFE EXTENSION AND NUTRITION
This chapter is devoted to the results of studies on dietary restriction. This is the only experimental approach (excluding genetic manipulation) that has slowed the rate of aging in a variety of organisms including mammals. The insights to understanding aging are enormous.
A. Overview of Caloric Restriction
B. Physiological Changes of Caloric Restriction
C. Mechanism of Caloric Restriction
Chapter 15 EVOLUTIONARY THEORY OF AGING
This chapter presents the basic principles of the evolutionary theory and shows how aging is now understood in the light of life histories of an organism. This view attempts to explain why organisms age.
A. Basic Evolution Theory
B. Historical Evolutionary Theory Programmed aging
C. Contemporary Evolutionary Theories
1. Antagonistic pleiotropy
2. Disposable Soma
3. Mutation accumulation
D. Importance of the Evolutionary View of Aging
Chapter 16 LIFE STYLE CHOICES
This last chapter attempts to pull together all of the known age changes and discuss how in light of this knowledge, one can make beneficial life style choices. It will also discuss anti-aging approaches that cannot work based on results of scientific experimentation.
A. Advantages/disadvantages of choices for health maintenance
B. Underlying biological changes induced with choices
C. Choices (A,B applied)
1. Exercise muscular/mental
2. Diet Mediterranean diet verses others; degrees of caloric restriction
3. Dietary supplements calcium, vitamins, minerals, others
4. Environment pollutants, sun, noise
5. Behaviors stress, alcohol
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