Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity
Volume 2 of an Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations, Essays and Exegesis §§185-242
The Second Edition of Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity (the second volume of the landmark analytical commentary on Wittgenstein`s Philosophical Investigations) now includes extensively revised and supplemented coverage of the Wittgenstein`s complex and controversial remarks on following rules.
Introduction to Volume 2.
I Two fruits upon one tree.
1. The continuation of the Early Draft into philosophy of mathematics.
2. Hidden isomorphism.
3. A common methodology.
4. The flatness of philosophical grammar.
Introduction to the exegesis.
II Rules and grammar.
1. The Tractatusand rules of logical syntax.
2. From logical syntax to philosophical grammar.
3. Rules and rule-formulations.
4. Philosophy and grammar.
5. The scope of grammar.
6. Some morals.
III Accord with a rule.
1. Initial compass bearings.
2. Accord and the harmony between language and reality.
3. Rules of inference and logical machinery.
4. Formulations and explanations of rules by examples.
5. Interpretations, fitting and grammar.
6. Further misunderstandings.
IV Following rules, mastery of techniques, and practices.
1. Following a rule.
2. Practices and techniques.
3. Doing the right thing and doing the same thing.
4. Privacy and the community view.
5. On not digging below bedrock.
V Private linguists and `private linguists` - Robinson Crusoe sails again.
1. Is a language necessarily shared with a community of speakers?
2. Innate knowledge of a language.
3. Robinson Crusoe sails again.
4. Solitary cavemen and monologuists.
5. Private languages and `private languages`.
VI Agreement in definitions, judgements and forms of life.
1. The scaffolding of facts.
2. The role of our nature.
3. Forms of life.
4. Agreement: consensus of human beings and their actions.
VII Grammar and necessity.
1. Setting the stage.
3. External guidelines.
4. Necessary propositions and norms of representation.
5. Concerning the truth and falsehood of necessary propositions.
6. What necessary truths are about.
7. Illusions of correspondence: ideal objects, kinds of reality and ultra-physics.
8. The psychology and epistemology of the a priori.
(v) Discoveries and conjectures.
9. Propositions of logic and laws of thought.
10. Alternative forms of representation.
11. The arbitrariness of grammar.
12. A kinship to the non-arbitrary.
13. Proof in mathematics.